Normalization a social process by which some

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Normalization : a social process by which some practices and ways of living are deemed normal and others abnormal Examining The Social Questions, Sociological Research and Research Design Theories General Statements about social relationships Statements about the causes of those relationships General predictions, based on these reasons, about how people will react to certain events or experiences or conditions Hypotheses Specific statements about how variables will relate to one another in a research study Research projects test hypotheses Positive findings regarding hypothesis simply provides support for a theory Does not prove a theory to be correct Variables Sociological knowledge is based on science, a logical organized method of obtaining
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information through direct, systematic observation. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, information that is directly verifiable A research method is a strategy for systematically conducting research Concepts, variables, and measurement Concepts and mental constructs that represent some part of the world, inevitably in a simplified form Variables are concepts whose value changes from case to case Operationalizing a variable is the process of developing the measure to be used in gauging a variable THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC THEORY Measurements of Relationships Measurement requires reliability- the quality of consistent measurement and validity- the quality of measuring precisely what one intends to measure Relationships among variables Cause and effect 2 is a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another 2 Spurious : not being what it purports to be; false or fake. Conceptual Plane Operational Plane
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Correlation exists when two (or more) variables are related in some way Sampling Social scientists rely on small groups of people, a sample, to reflect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of a larger groups of humans, the population Samples can be more of less representative of a larger population Probability samples (e.g. random samples) are designed to represent the larger population Non-probability samples include convenience and snowball 3 samples Limitation of Scientific Research Human behaviour is too complex to allow sociology to predict any individual’s actions precisely Because humans respond to their surroundings, the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behaviour being studied Social patterns change constantly; what is true in one time or place may not hold in another Because sociologists are part of the social world they study, objectivity 4 in social research is especially difficult Subjective 5 interpretation is always an important element in sociological analysis Type of Research - Qualitative Research - The non numerical examination and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships (Babbie, 1999) - Quantitative Research -
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  • Fall '12
  • Sociology, Theoretical Analysis of Culture

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