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benzodiazepines causing greater confusion and disorientation (Hilmer et al., 2007). Per Rochon, Vozoris, & Gill (2017), clinicians avoid prescribing benzodiazepines for older people with dementia because these drugs are associated with harms, including fall-related injuries such as fractures and cognitive worsening, an adverse event that is especially concerning in vulnerable older individuals who already have cognitive deficits. There are mechanisms that support the linkbetween benzodiazepine use and pneumonia, these medications produce sedation leading to hypoventilation, reduce pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter leading to reflux and aspiration, and can suppress immune function, all of which may contribute to pneumonia risk (Rochon et al., 2017).
Plan of CareAdvanced practice nurse needs to determine the best treatment for a patient, what medication is suitable for the patient, the right dose, time, and duration. Also, the age, gender, and genetic disposition of the patient should be considered during assessment (Laureate Education Inc., 2012). The plan of care for Joe will be assessment using nondrug intervention such as assessing environment, checking for full bladder, constipation, room temperature, turningon light to reduce nighttime confusion or restlessness. Pharmacological treatment may include use of neuroleptic agents such as haloperidol as first line of treatment. Haloperidol and