21 compare and contrast the structures and functions

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21. Compare and contrast the structures and functions of starch and glycogen. How are these molecules similar? How are they different? 22. Compare and contrast the structures and functions of chitin and cellulose. How are these molecules similar? How are they different? 23. Explain why humans are unable to break down cellulose? What role does cellulose play in the human diet? 24. To treat galactosemia (an over-accumulation of galactose), physicians exclude the monosaccharide galactose from the diet. Why does the disaccharide lactose also have to be excluded from the diet? What are the monomers of the other two common disaccharides? 25. Describe the structure of a steroid. What roles do steroids play in the human body? 26. How do saturated fats differ structurally from unsaturated fats? Is sunflower oil saturated or unsaturated? Explain. 27. Describe how your body transports cholesterol. 28. Explain why a change in diet alone may not reduce cholesterol levels. 29. Why is it important to avoid eating trans fats? 30. Most lipids are hydrophobic explain why phospholipids are amphipathic? 31. Draw two amino acids linked by a peptide bond. Label the amino group at the N-terminus, the carboxyl group at the C-terminus, the two α carbons and the two R-groups. 32. Describe the four potential levels of protein structure. Include a description of the interactions that produce each level of structure. 33. Isoleucine, valine and leucine are amino acids with highly hydrophobic side chains. If a section of protein contains a long series of these hydrophobic amino acids, how would you expect this portion of the protein to behave when the molecule is in aqueous solution? 34. A major theme of biology is that structure correlates with function. Use this theme to explain why proteins can perform so many different functions in organisms and why proteins as a group are such effective catalysts. 35. Define denaturation and explain how proteins may be denatured. 36. Complete a chart with the following columns: “Polymer,” “Monomer,” “Major Functions,” “Type of Bond” (be more specific than “covalent”), and “Most Common Elements”. You should include carbohydrates, proteins, fats (no monomer) and nucleic acids as your polymers. 37. Describe the differences between DNA and RNA. Past Free-Response Questions on the AP Exam: The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select THREE properties of water and:
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