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Another general limitation that potentially affects meta-analyses is the file drawer problem(Rosenthal, 1995). This problem refers to the well-supported idea that because studies that have achieved statistical significance are more likely to be published, the studies sampled are not truly random. Studies that were not significant may still remain in file drawers and not available to the researcher conducting a meta-analysis. This potential problem can affect the research conclusion (Rosenthal, 1995). Practical implications for these results include the idea that EI is a fairly good predictor of leadership effectiveness. While leaders were once only expected to meet business goals, it seems that today’s effective leader may also increase the likelihood of his or her success by being emotionally intelligent. EI is still a young theory, and still in development, as can be seen in the varied EI measures in use. However, this study has suggested that any EI measure may suffice in predicting leadership effectiveness. Organizations cannot ignore the importance of selection and detection of successful leaders. A better understanding of why leaders are, or are not effective, is
18 crucial to organizations. The selection of leaders may also affect other aspects of an organization, such as employee job satisfaction, job performance, attendance, turnover, etc. Future selection, and development of current leaders or managers, may want to consider EI as a critical success factor.
19 References Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations, Free Press, New York, NY. *Barbuto, J. E., Burbach, M. E. (2006). The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: A Field Study of Elected Officials. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146, 51-64. *Barling, J., Slater, F., Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21,157-161.Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). In R. Bar-On & J.D.A. Parker (eds.): Handbook of emotional intelligence, 343-362. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bradberry, T., & Greaves, J. (2005). The Emotional Intelligence Quick Book, (New York: Simon and Schuster). Bradberry, T. and Greaves J. (2005) "Heartless Bosses," The Harvard Business Review. *Brown, F.W., Bryant, S.E., & Reilly, M.D. (2006). Does Emotional Intelligence – As Measured by the EQI – Influence Transformational Leadership and/or Desirable Outcomes? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(5), 330-351. Brown, F. W., & Moshavi, D. (2005). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: a potential pathway for an increased understanding of interpersonal influence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26,867-871. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.