swimware to the design of a new type of golf ball providing significantly

# Swimware to the design of a new type of golf ball

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swimware to the design of a new type of golf ball providing significantly longer flight times, and thus driving distance (and currently banned by the PGA). The example of a race car also reflects current heavy use of CFD in numerous areas of automobile production ranging from the design of modern internal combustion engines exhibiting improved efficiency and reduced emissions to various aspects of the manufacturing process, per se , including, for example, spray painting of the completed vehicles. It is essential to recognize that a CFD computer code solves the Navier–Stokes equations, given earlier, and this is not a trivial undertaking—often even for seemingly easy physical problems. The user of such codes must understand the mathematics of these equations sufficiently well to be able to supply all required auxiliary data for any given problem, and he/she must have sufficient grasp of the basic physics of fluid flow to be able to assess the outcome of a calculation and determine, among other things, whether it is “physically reasonable”—and if not, decide what to do next. 1.3 Overview of Course In this course mainly the theoretical aspects of fluid dynamics will be studied; it is simply not possible to cover all three facets of the subject of fluid dynamics in a single one-semester course meeting only three hours per week. At the same time, however, we will try at every opportunity to indicate how the theoretical topics we study impact both computational and experimental practice. Moreover, the approach to be taken in these lectures will be to emphasize the importance and utility of the “equations of fluid motion” (the Navier–Stokes equations). There has been a tendency in recent years to de-emphasize the use of these equations—at precisely a time when they should, instead, be emphasized. They are the underlying core of every CFD analysis tool, and failure to understand their physical origins and how to deal with their mathematical formulations will lead to serious deficiencies in a modern industrial setting where CFD is heavily used. The equations of fluid motion (often simply termed “the governing equations”) consist of a
1.3. OVERVIEW OF COURSE 9 system of partial differential equations (as can be seen in an earlier section) which we will derive from basic physical and mathematical arguments very early in these lectures. Once we have these equations in hand, and understand the physics whence they came, we will be able to very efficiently attack a wide range of practical problems. But there is considerable physical and notational back- ground needed before we can do this, and it is this material that will be emphasized in the second chapter of these lectures. There are four main physical ideas that form the basis of fluid dynamics. These are: i ) the continuum hypothesis, ii ) conservation of mass, iii ) balance of momentum (Newton’s second law of motion) and iv ) balance (conservation) of energy. The last of these is not needed in the description

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