The most potent risk factors for uti in women are

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acidic and gram-negative enterics more easily colonize. The most potent risk factors for UTI in women are: sexual intercourse, the use of a diaphragm/spermicide, and a history of UTI. In men, prostatic hypertrophy is the main risk factor. In both sexes, Foley catheters are a major risk factor. Once bacteria reach the bladder, they may cause cystitis or they may reside there asymptomatically.Symptoms of cystitis are urgency, frequency and dysuria. (The symptom of dysuria can also be caused by certain STDs causing urethritis, and may be confused with the symptoms of vaginitis.) From the bladder, bacteria may ascend to reach the kidney, producing pyelonephritis, an invasive infection which can cause bacteremia and severe illness.Pyelonephritis is typified by fever, chills, flank pain and tenderness, and an elevated peripheral WBC. Ascent from the bladder to the kidney is facilitated by urinary stasis and obstruction (as occurs in pregnancy and certain neurological conditions). Sticky E. coli have an advantage here, too. The defenses of the urinary tract against infection are minimal, mainly the flushing effect of urine and the sloughing of colonized epithelial cells.
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