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Atherosclerosis is most common cause thrombus from

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Atherosclerosis is most common cause Thrombus from atheroma may obstruct artery Vasospasm is cause in a small percentage Size and location of the infarct determine the damage Warning Signs of Heart Attack Feeling pressure, heaviness, or burning in chest especially with increased activity Sudden shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue Nausea, indigestion, anxiety and fear Pain may occur and if present is usually substernal, crushing, and radiating Diagnostic Test ECG changes, serum enzymes and Isoenzymes Serum levels of myosin, cardiac troponin are elevated Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and ESR common Arterial blood gas and pulmonary artery pressure Complications Sudden death Treatment Reduce the cardiac demand Oxygen therapy Analgesics Anticoagulants Thrombolytic agents may be used Tissue plasminogen activator Medication to treat: Dysrhythmias, hypertension, congestive heart failure Cardiac rehabilitation begins immediately Cardiac Dysrhythmias
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What’s the problem? ** Cardiac Output is the problem- that is all she said to know for dysrhythmias Sinus node abnormalities - pacemaker of the heart, which alters rate Bradycardia- regular but slow heart rate Tachycardia- regular rapid heart rate Sick sinus syndrome- marked by alternating bradycardia and tachycardia often requiring mechanical pacemaker Atrial Contraction Abnormalities Premature atrial contractions (PAC)- extra contraction or ectopic beats irritable atrial muscle cells outside the conduction pathway Atrial fibrillation- rate over 350 beats/min causing pooling of blood in the atria and a risk for thrombus formation Atrial Node Abnormalities Heart block- conduction is excessively delayed or stopped at AV node/bundle of HIS First degree- conduction delay between atrial and ventricular contractions Second degree- every second to third atrial beat is dropped at AV node Third degree- no transmission from atria to ventricles Ventricular Conduction Abnormalities Bundle branch block- interference with conduction in one of the bundle branches Ventricular tachycardia- likely to reduce cardiac output as reduced diastole occurs Ventricular fibrillation- muscles fibers contract independently and rapidly and cardiac standstill occurs if not treated immediately Premature ventricular contractions- additional beat from ventricular muscle cell or ectopic pacemaker. May lead to ventricular fibrillation Treatment of Cardiac Dysrhythmias Cause needs to be determined and treated Antidysrhythmic drugs are effective in many cases SA nodal problems or total heart bock require pacemakers Defibrillator may be implanted for conversion of ventricular fibrillation Cardiac Arrest Cessation of all heart activity – no conduction of impulses, flat ECG Many reasons cause this: Excessive vagal nerve stimulation Potassium imbalance, cardiogenic shock Drug toxicity, insufficient oxygen
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