I203+Study+Guide+-+Exam+2-2-1

Environmentalism is another countermovement which

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Environmentalism is another countermovement, which challenges assumptions and practices of unbridled economic growth while seeking to complement consumer lifestyles using alternative consumer ways. One example of this is in the 21 st century encouraging people to buy recycled products, which are good for the environment or using Canada’s radical idea of “ecological accounting” in which the price of the environmental effect is placed in the prices of goods and services. Another countermovement to the Globalization project is feminism as it serves to transform the understandings and implications of development, because of the sense of empowerment it gives not only women of every race, economic situation and sexual orientation. It has transformed the concept of human development, going against globalization with its belief in human rights rather than growth, trade and development. This is especially true from the current wave of feminism in the 21 st century with the establishment of organizations like Women in Development. 7. Define post-structuralism and post-developmentalism as the terms pertain to development. Who are the main authors associated with each term, and what are the central arguments that they make regarding development theory? How are these different from Enlightenment theories of development? Post-structuralism is a mode of social control that acts openly through disciplinary institutions and through rationalized socialization. Its authors are Jean Baudrillard and Richard Rorty. Its main idea
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is that ideas are socially constructed, with emphasis on the power relations between the positions of people. It is different from enlightenment in that instead of people being seen as rational and infinitely perfectible, while post-structuralism believes that development is a social construction. Post-developmentalism is a reaction to Neo-liberalism mainly thought of by Arutro Esobar who calls for a radical pluralism, simple living and reappraisal of non-capitalist societies. Its main idea is going away from capitalist ideas and living a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle, like urban agriculture. In terms of developmental thinking, it is an almost backwards-thinking concept, a countermovement to globalization. In comparison to Enlightment, this idea is fundamentalist in nature, rather than always wanting to perfect, it is better to stick to simpler, traditional codes of behavior. 8. Explain the role of feminism in relationship to development. Be sure to also incorporate WID, WAD, and GAD. The first wave of feminist development happened in the late 19 th century when women wanted equal contract and property. The second wave happened in the 1960s to the 1980s when women contested the meanings of objectification and individuality. This wave happened with a series of movements like Women in Development who attack unequal poverty, Women and Development who attack unequal empowerment and Gender and Development who attacks gender stereotypes. The final wave happens from the 1980s onward which places more emphasis on ambiguous gendered terms.
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