Section 4. Congress shall, as soon as possible, determine by law, the specific limitsof forest lands and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. Thereafter, such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not beincreased or diminished, EXCEPT by law. Congress shall provide measures toprohibit logging in1.Endangered forest and2.Watershed areas for such period as it may determine.Section 5. ANCESTRAL LANDSProtection of Indigenous Cultural Communities1.The State protects the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestrallandsa.Subject to Constitutional provisionsb.Subject to national development policies and programs2.In determining ownership and extent of ancestral domain, Congress may usecustomary laws on property rights and relations.3.“ANCESTRAL DOMAIN”a.It refers to lands which are considered as pertaining to a cultural regionb.This includes lands not yet occupied, such as deep forests.Section 7. PRIVATE LANDSGeneral rule1.Private lands CAN only be transferred or conveyed to:a.Filipino citizensb.Corporations or associations incorporated in the Philippines, at least 60% ofwhose capital is owned by Filipino citizens2.Exceptionsa.In intestate succession, where an alien heir of a Filipino is the transferee ofprivate land.b.A natural born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenshipmay be a transferee of PRIVATE ALND, subject to limitation provided by law. Hence, land can be used only for residential purposes. In this case, he onlyacquires derivative title.c.Foreign states may acquire land but only for embassy and staff residencepurposes.3.Filipino citizenship is only required at the time the land is acquired. Thus, loss ofcitizenship after acquiring the land does not deprive ownership.4.Restriction against aliens only applies to acquisition of ownership. Therefore:a.Aliens may be lessees or usufructuaries of private landsb.Aliens may be mortgages of land, as long as they do not obtain possessionthereof and do not bid in the foreclosure sale.5.Land tenure is not indispensable to the free exercise of religious profession andworship. A religious corporation controlled by non-Filipinos cannot acquire and ownland, even for religious purposes.Remedies to recover private lands from disqualified aliens:1.Escheat proceedings2.Action for reversion under the Public Land Act3.An action by the former Filipino owner to recover the land
a.The former pari delicto principle has been abandonedb.Alien still has the title (didn’t pass it on to one who is qualified)Section 10. NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY/INVESTMENTSPower of Congress1.Congress, upon the recommendation of NEDA, can reserve to Filipino citizens or tocorporations or associations at least 60% of whose capital is owned by such citizens, orsuch higher percentage as Congress may prescribe, certain areas of investment. Thismay be done when the national interest dictates.