Schemes it is foregrounded repetition of expressions

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Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 38
Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
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SCHEMES: It is foregrounded repetition of expressions; expression includes phonology and surface grammatical structure (graphology). TROOPS: It is foregrounded irregularities of content. A troop may be identified as a formal or semantic deviation.
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Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 38
Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
Devore
Expert Verified
ANAPHORA is a scheme. It is the repetition of words at the start of a sentence or clause e.g. 1. Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st, Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade, 2. So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Words Nor and So long are anaphora in this poem. PLOCE is a scheme. It is the intermittent repetition of words e.g. 1. Thou art more lovely and more temperate: 2. And every fair from fair sometime declines, Words more and fair are Ploce in this poem. ANTITHESIS is a scheme in which contrasting words, phrases, sentences or ideas are used for the sake of emphasis. For example in sonnet 18, in line7 the poet makes a hypothesis that “every fair from fair sometime declines” but in the next lines from 9-11 the poet himself opposes his hypothesis by the concept that the beauty of his beloved will never be decline. RHETORICAL QUESTION is a troop in which leading question is asked e.g.
“Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day”? This 1 st line is a rhetorical question. SIMILE is a figure of speech and a troop which compares two unlike things by the use of word “like” or “as”. In line 1 simile is used when the poet compare the beauty of his beloved with a summer’s day. METAPHORE is a figure of speech and a troop which directly compares two different things. It is implied simile. In Line 3 “the darling buds of May” is an extended metaphor of plant life. In line 5-6 “the eye of heaven shines” is a metaphor of hot sunny day and “gold complexion dimm’d” is a metaphor of a cold day. In line 9 “thy eternal summer” is a metaphor of the beauty and youth of poet’s beloved. In line 12 “lines to time” is a metaphor of poetry. PERSONIFICATION is a figure of speech and a troop in which human attributes are given to non-human things. In line 3-4 personification is used. The words “shake” and “darling” are more often applied to human characteristics even if the wind have the ability to shake the branches of trees and buds may be called as “darling”. Leasing is also a property of humans which is given to summer.
In line 5-6 personification is used when the heaven is given eyes and the word complexion is used for sun instead of man. In line 9 reverse personification is used. Here the beloved is given the attribute of summer. PUN is a play on words which suggests two or more meanings for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. In line 2 "Temperate" is a pun, it carries two important meanings here. When it is applied to the beloved, it means "showing moderation or self-restraint", but when applied to the summer’s day it means, "Possessing mild temperature".

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