insulin secretion from human b-cells, consistent with an in vivo mode of action through enhancing insulin secretion The leaf extract also has hypolipidaemic activity in human patients and animals fed a high- fat diet The usual dose is up to 4 g of leaf daily. Gymnemic acids are well tolerated, but care should be taken when used in conjunction with other antidiabetic agents. KARELA, MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. Page 8
The bitter gourd or bitter melon, karela (Momordica charantia, Cucurbitaceae), is grown throughout India, China, Africa and parts of America. It is a slender, climbing shrub with kidney-shaped, lobed leaves. The fruit resembles a cucumber with numerous ridges or warts and soft spines. It has an intensely bitter taste. Both the leaves and fruit are used medicinally. The plant is widely used in the treatment of diabetes. The fruit is eaten as a vegetable; the leaf may be made into a type of ‘bush tea’, called ‘cerassie’. Constituents The plant contains triterpene (cucurbitane-type) glycosides calledmomordicosidesA–L and the goyaglycosides A–H, as well as momordicin, momordicinin and cucurbitanes I, II and III and goyasaponins I, II and III. Proteins and lectins present include a-, b- and g- momorcharins and momordins a and b. Therapeutic uses and available evidence Both the fruit and the leaf have hypoglycaemic effects. The extract causes hypoglycaemia in animals and human diabetic patients, and several clinical studies have confirmed Benefits , but a recent Cochrane review states that there is insufficient evidence to recommend it for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that further studies are required to address issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. It has also been used to treat asthma, skin infections and hypertension Contraceptive and teratogenic effects have been described in animals, so care should be taken in pregnant women, although cooking the vegetable may well destroy many of the toxins. Cinnamomum Verum Page 9
The bark of various cinnamon species is one of the most important and popular spices used worldwide not only for cooking but also in traditional and modernmedicines. Overall, approximately 250 species have been identified among the cinnamon genus, with trees being scattered all over the world Cinnamon is mainly used in the aroma and essence industries due to its fragrance, which can be incorporated into different varieties of foodstuffs, perfumes, andmedicinal products Constituents Cinnamon consists of a variety of resinous compounds, including cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, cinnamic acid, and numerous essential that the spicy taste and fragrance are due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde and occur due to the absorption of oxygen. As cinnamon ages, it darkens in color, improving the resinous compounds . Sangal reported various physiochemical properties of cinnamon Thepresence of a wide range of essential oils, such as trans -cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, L-borneol, caryophyllene oxide, b-caryophyllene, L-bornyl acetate, E-nerolidol, ? -cubebene, ? -
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