Assumptions are that employees want to feel useful and important, employees have strong social needs, more important than money, maintaining the appearance of employee participation is important o Human Resource Approach Emphasized value of employees to organization Assumptions are that employee contributions are important and valuable to the employee and the organization, employees want to and are able to make genuine contributions, management’s job is to encourage participation and create a work environment that motivates employees Content Perspectives on Motivation o Content Perspectives on Motivation is asking the question “What factors in the workplace motivate people?” o Need Hierarchy Approach People must, in a hierarchical order, satisfy five groups of needs Physiological needs for basic survival and biological function Security needs seeking a safe physical and emotional environment Belongingness needs for love and affection Esteem needs for positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others Self-actualization needs for one’s potential for continued growth and individual development o
o o ERG (Existence Relativeness Growth) Theory Needs are grouped into overlapping categories Existence needs – physiological and security needs Relatedness needs – belongingness and esteem Growth needs – self-esteem and self-actualization ERG theory assumes: Multiple needs can be operative at one time (unlike Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) If a need is unsatisfied, a person will regress to a lower level need and pursue that need o Two-Factor Theory Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors In order for motivation to occur you need satisfaction and no dissatisfaction The theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are on two distinct continuums Motivational factors (work content ) are on a continuum that ranges from satisfaction to no satisfaction o Ex. You’re either satisfied with the work you’re doing (like Spongebob) or you’re not satisfied with the work you’re doing (like Squidward) Hygiene factors (work environment) are on a separate continuum that ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction o Ex. Say you go to the bathroom. If toilet paper is there you’re not dissatisfied, however if there’s no toilet paper you’re dissatisfied. Theory says that motivation is a two-step process Ensuring that the hygiene factors are not deficient and not blocking motivation
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- Spring '08