used in power conflicts, aims at changing material structures and serves as a mechanism for cognitively framing movements. 45 The deployment of culture to achieve a movement’s aims has been dubbed a “cultural project.” 46 Specialists who undertake such work typically deliberately decide which genres to adopt, the cultural forms that are appropriate [e.g., music, art, drama, dance, poetry, or other expressive cultural forms], how culture contributes to the goals of the movement, and what makes culture political. They also develop cultural infrastructure, producing, distributing, and promoting their cultural work. 47 Music—as a contributing element to movement culture—is a tool for social- movement formation, including recruitment and sustenance of participants, as well as movement longevity. Music creates group identity and consciousness, fosters belonging and solidarity, empowers members, and establishes group visibility. 48 It invokes a sense of continuity with the past; 49 generates financial and moral support, both active and passive; 50 and also promotes alliances between different groups. 51 Importantly, music can achieve all of these goals “free from the censorship of the dominant culture.” 52 42. See, e.g. , William F. Danaher, Music and Social Movements , 4 S OC . C OMPASS 811 (2013) (describing role of music in forming collective identities in various movements and at various times); Ron Eyerman, Music in Movement: Cultural Politics and Old and New Social Movements , 25 Q UALITATIVE S OC . 443 (2002) (exploring the role of music in American civil rights movement and Swedish white power movement). Although beyond the limits of this article, an understanding of the sociology of music is helpful for understanding the relationship between social movements and music. For a succinct description of the sociology of music, including what music is, the meaning of music, and the function of music, see W ILLIAM G. R OY , R EDS , W HITES , AND B LUES : S OCIAL M OVEMENTS , F OLK M USIC , AND R ACE IN THE U NITED S TATES 9–20 (2010). 43. R OY , supra note 42, at 7. 44. Danaher, supra note 42, at 816–18. 45. See Eyerman, supra note 42, at 445; see also Danaher, supra note 42, at 812. 46. R OY , supra note 42, at 7. 47. Id. 48. Id. at 8–9; Eyerman, supra note 42, at 447. 49. Eyerman, supra note 42, at 447. 50. R OY , supra note 42, at 8–9; Eyerman, supra note 42, at 447. 51. Danaher, supra note 42, at 818–19. 52. Eyerman, supra note 42, at 447.
3-D ENNIS (D O N OT D ELETE ) 7/8/2016 9:15 AM 36 L AW AND C ONTEMPORARY P ROBLEMS [Vol. 79:29 III B LACK S OCIAL M OVEMENTS , M USIC AS M OBILIZATION , AND M OVEMENT O PPOSITION Throughout almost four hundred years, Blacks in America have constantly used music to contest the omnipresence of social and legal injustice in Black lives. Because Blacks have not often had the privilege to publicly express their concerns to the majority, music has allowed for the free communication of Blacks within the community and to others who would not ordinarily listen. 53 Black music and musicians have facilitated social movements by using musical
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