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prevent further harm)SummaryDevianceis relative. An act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as such, and definitions vary widely. Deviant behaviour also varies in seriousness, from mild to serious violations of the law
Strain theory: Goals and means to achieve themRobert Mertonsaid, in a smoothly functioning society, deviance will be limited because most people share common goals and agree upon the appropriate means for reaching the.Deviance is common in societies because people may be willing to use whatever means they can to achieve their goals. When denied legitimate accessto these goals, some people seek access through deviant means.Some sociologists think strain theory can explain upper-class deviance as well.Opportunity theory: Access to illegitimate opportunitiesCloward and Lloyd ohlinsuggest for deviance to occur, people must have accessto Illegitimate opportunity structures.Three different forms of delinquent subcultures1.Criminal: focuses on economic gain, stealing, dealing2.Conflict: Gang culture, adopt value systems and status enhancing qualities3.Retreatist: Drinking and drug use.Control theory: Social bonding:Some types of social structures lead to high rates of deviance. Communities characterized by poverty often had high rates of suicide, mental illness and substance abuse/crimeSocial bond theory holds thatthe likelihood of deviant behaviour increases when a persons ties to a society are weakened or broken. Social bonding consists of attachment, commitment, involvement, beiefConcept snapshotFunctionalist perspective: In a smoothly functioning society, deviance will be limited because most people will share common culture goals and agree upon the appropriate means for reaching them. However, societies that do not provide sufficient avenues to reach these goals may also lack agreement about how peoplemay achieve their aspirations. Deviance may be common in such societies because people may feel free to use whatever means they can to achieve these goalsInteractionist perspective: Deviance is learned in the same way as conformity through interaction with others. A person becomes deviant when exposure to law breaking attitudes is more meaningful to them than exposure to law abiding attitudes. Societal reaction to someone who has been labeled as deviant may also cause people to develop a deviant self concept.Conflict perspectives: The powerful use law and the criminal justice sysem to protect their own class interests. The way laws are written and enforced benefits the capitalist class by ensuring that individuals at the bottom of the class structure do not take the property or threaten the safety of those at the top. The poor may also be forced to commit crime to survive. Laws are written by the upper class and powerful people in society, so they ensure that they retain their powerful status and class. This negatively effects lower class people by ensuring the remain