Prevent further harm summary deviance is relative an

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prevent further harm) Summary Deviance is relative. An act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as such, and definitions vary widely. Deviant behaviour also varies in seriousness, from mild to serious violations of the law
Strain theory: Goals and means to achieve them Robert Merton said, in a smoothly functioning society, deviance will be limited because most people share common goals and agree upon the appropriate means for reaching the. Deviance is common in societies because people may be willing to use whatever means they can to achieve their goals. When denied legitimate access to these goals, some people seek access through deviant means. Some sociologists think strain theory can explain upper-class deviance as well. Opportunity theory: Access to illegitimate opportunities Cloward and Lloyd ohlin suggest for deviance to occur, people must have access to Illegitimate opportunity structures. Three different forms of delinquent subcultures 1. Criminal: focuses on economic gain, stealing, dealing 2. Conflict: Gang culture, adopt value systems and status enhancing qualities 3. Retreatist: Drinking and drug use. Control theory: Social bonding: Some types of social structures lead to high rates of deviance. Communities characterized by poverty often had high rates of suicide, mental illness and substance abuse/crime Social bond theory holds that the likelihood of deviant behaviour increases when a persons ties to a society are weakened or broken. Social bonding consists of attachment, commitment, involvement, beief Concept snapshot Functionalist perspective: In a smoothly functioning society, deviance will be limited because most people will share common culture goals and agree upon the appropriate means for reaching them. However, societies that do not provide sufficient avenues to reach these goals may also lack agreement about how people may achieve their aspirations. Deviance may be common in such societies because people may feel free to use whatever means they can to achieve these goals Interactionist perspective: Deviance is learned in the same way as conformity through interaction with others. A person becomes deviant when exposure to law breaking attitudes is more meaningful to them than exposure to law abiding attitudes . Societal reaction to someone who has been labeled as deviant may also cause people to develop a deviant self concept. Conflict perspectives: The powerful use law and the criminal justice sysem to protect their own class interests . The way laws are written and enforced benefits the capitalist class by ensuring that individuals at the bottom of the class structure do not take the property or threaten the safety of those at the top. The poor may also be forced to commit crime to survive. Laws are written by the upper class and powerful people in society, so they ensure that they retain their powerful status and class. This negatively effects lower class people by ensuring the remain

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