GOV 310L Module Notes.docx

International effort needed aa support in the war

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International effort: needed AA support in the war effort o Push for egalitarian values o Hypocritical values for US trying to advance democracy
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o Medgar Evers wanted black registration for voting, and served in WWII as part of the Red Ball, but was shot and killed in his driveway because of his attempts to franchise AA Court used to support segregation, and undermine black progress ‘restrictive covenants’ legally bound people to keep from selling house to a black person, court ruled against it. Shelley v. Kramer Sweatt v. Painter (UT is not white only anymore) De jure segregation was no more (but was it enforced?) Activities of civil rights movement Large levels of mobilization Montogomery bus boycott lasted over one year (media) o Not the first bus boycott o Was in her early 40s Rosa Parks was a test case o Plessy was a test case o Black church played a key role Churches as movement centers: Allowed to decentralize the movement (local better than NAACP) Local leaders Emotionalism Relied on purposive incentives: do it because you should Social solidarity incentives Mass demonstrations Southern Christian leadership conference Groups talking about money in politics/lobbying/etc. o More money into the political system than ever before o Legislation has been put into effect to stem the flow of money Federal Election Campaigns Direct corporate contributions have been illegal for a long time Federal Election Campaign Act (1971,74) Campaign finance became a big issue after Watergate Nixon bent the rules (CREEP) Limit individual contributions 1k per election per campaign Limits on candidate expenditures unconstit. Via Buckley v. Valeo o 1 st amendment Definition of PAC’s (political action committees) o In defining these, they gave interest groups a blueprint to get involved in federal elections o Legitimized interest group participations Disclosure requirements for candidates and parties in federal elections Establishment of governing body here (FEC) Effects: o Huge increase in number of PAC’s o Huge increase in money in campaigns o Soft money funneled through the parties
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Raise and spend unlimited amounts of money on party building activities, voter information, noncoordinated advertising Blurred lines ^ (loop hole in FEC) unregulated money Run your own advertisements Was unclear if groups had first amendment rights, but individuals did Bundling: get group donations and stick ‘em all together, not uncommon Hard money: spent and earned within hard limits of law Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002) (BCRA) Closing off the loopholes in FECA Increased individual contribution levels indexed for inflation (2600 now ish) Outlaws soft money for national/state Outlaws soft money spent by PAC’s, upheld by supreme court Effects: o Increase in money in politics o Increase in PAC’s (527 groups) Tax IRS code designation (Tax exempt organization) Citizens United Decision (2009)
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