Element of the clinical question p atient describe as

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Element of the clinical question P atient Describe as accurately as possible the patient or group of patients of interest I ntervention (or cause, prognosis) What is the main intervention or therapy you wish to consider? Including an exposure to disease, a diagnostic test, a prognostic factor, a treatment, a patient perception, a risk factor, etc. C omparison Is there an alternative treatment to compare? Including no disease, placebo, a different prognostic factor, absence of risk factor, etc Outcome What is the clinical outcome, including a time horizon if relevant? Example In patients with acute bronchitis, do antibiotics None reduce sputum production, cough or days off.? Example In children with cancer what are the current treatments in the management of fever and infection? Example Among family- members of patients undergoing diagnostic procedures does standard care, listening to tranquil music, or audio- taped comedy routines make a difference in the reduction of reported anxiety. 2
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The following resources provide access to high quality, synthesized research on medical and nursing topics: A. Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses If one research study or clinical trial provides good evidence, several studies with similar results may provide even stronger evidence or negate previous findings. This logic is applied by researchers to systematically identify, appraise and synthesize evidence from individual studies on a particular topic. A vigorous review process with standardized protocols is applied to multiple studies, often utilizing meta-analysis of data from several studies, combined with statistical analyses techniques to minimize the bias of the conclusions. These processes translate into the literature as systematic reviews and summaries of evidence . Resource examples that provide systematic reviews/meta-analyses Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects) Joanna Briggs Institute Clinical evidence Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Guideline Clearinghouse B. Critically Appraised Research Studies (CATs) If a systematic review, summary of evidence or practice guideline is not available for your clinical question, the next best source for evidence is the critical appraisal of individual research studies. Generally, reviews of the biomedical literature are done for quantitative research studies , but nursing reviews may also focus on qualitative research studies . 3
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Resource examples of CATs Evidence-Based Nursing Journal Nursing Best Practice Guidelines – Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario C. Individual Research Studies Clinical trials or individual research studies published in journal literature form the foundation of scientific evidence, but not all research meets the highest standards of quality. This means that if you locate relevant individual research articles, another step
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  • Fall '19
  • Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review

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