Thoreaus ideology was reflected in future advocates

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Thoreau’s ideology was reflected in future advocates like Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. 9. Melville 1819-1891 1. He was born in New York 2. Ran away as a youth and spent years sailing the world before returning home to become the greatest America novelist of his era 3. The most important of his novels was Moby Dick (1851) i. The book reflected Melville’s conviction that that the human spirit was a troubled, often self-destructive force 10. Horace Mann 1. American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education 2. Suggested reforms in education 3. Made available high-quality, no-cost, nondenominational public schooling 4. The system has lasted to present day, and as a result, Mann has been called the father of the American public school 11. Hudson River School 1825-1875 1. Group of American landscape painters 2. Part of increasing American nationalism following the War of 1812 3. The influence of the European Romantic movement led many American artists to paint their homeland 4. Depicted important landscapes such as Niagara Falls, the Catskills, the Rocky Mountains, and the Hudson River Valley 5. Artists included Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, George Inness, and S.F.B. Morse 12. James Fennimore Cooper 1. The author of over thirty novels in the space of three decades, Cooper was known to his contemporaries as a master of adventure and suspense 2. His writing was influenced by the American frontier and America’s landscapes 3. What most distinguished he work was its evocation of the American wilderness 4. He retained a fascination with man’s relationship to nature and with the challenges of America’s expansion westward throughout his life 5. Cooper’s novels were a continuation, in many ways a culmination, of the early 19 th century effort to produce a truly American literature, but they also served as a link to the concerns of later intellectuals 13. Lucretia Mott 1793-1880 1. An American Quaker, abolitionist, a women’s rights activist, and a social reformer
2. In 1848, Mott, Stanton. And Susan B. Anthony, organized a convention in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the question of women’s rights i. Out of the meeting emerged a “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions,” which stated that “all men and women are created equal,” that women no less than men have certain inalienable rights 14. Margaret Fuller 1810-1850 1. An American journalist, critic, and women’s rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement 2. She was responsible for drawing issues of gender into the larger discussion of individual liberation 3. A leading transcendentalist and a close associate of Emerson, she suggested the important relationship between the discovery of the “self” that was so central to antebellum reform and the questioning of gender roles 15. Mormonism—1830 1. Religion founded by Joseph Smith Jr.

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