The ability to understand another’s feelings and perspectiveodevelopment of self-concept D.The Development of the Self -** see Table 5- 6 Who Is That Baby in the Mirror? P. 144**-about 7 months: stranger anxiety awareness of people, self, as separate (discrepancy hypothesis)-later in first year: realize they can cause things to happen (throw cheerios etc)-by 18 mos: clearly recognize self in mirror and picturesorouge test: before 18 mos, touch mirror “other baby”; after 18 mos, touch own nose-by two years: knowledge of self including activity and appearanceoexperience emotions in response to sense of selfoaffects language: “me” “mine” E.Attachment and Separation -major goals of first two years: creating secure attachment and becoming comfortable with sense of self and separation
-** see Table 5- 7 Important Factors in Personality Development During Infancy and Toddlerhood p. 145 **V.The Family System: A Broader Context A.Fathers -role of fathers changing, increasing involvement-just as capable as caregivers-infants can just as securely attach to fathers-more father involvement better development oAccessibility: The father needs to be present and available to the child. oEngagement: The father needs to be in direct contact with the child, providing care and interacting in a close, warm, and consistent manner. oResponsibility: The father needs to participate fully in making decisions about child care, which includes arranging for child care, meals, doctors’ visits, and other activities.-fathering stylesofathers more likely to hold for play, mothers for caregivingofathers more often physical and exciting in play, mothers gentleofather as primary caregiver takes on more maternal roleoolder fathers take on more maternal role -fathers and the family systemotraditionally after infant born fathers more likely to work and mothers more likely to provide childcare roles changing slightlyoinfluence of involved father significantimproved language and cognitive development at 24 and 36 mosreduced behavioral problems in young boysreduced psychological problems in young women greater involvement greater positive impact on development B.Other Family Members as Caregivers -older siblings often serve as role models, caregivers-sibling rivalryStrife and competition between siblings, such as for parental attention oreduced by giving special time and attention to older children after birth of infant -grandparentsoprovide supportive childcareoparticularly helpful in single parent homes
about 1/3 children under 18 raised in single parent homes in USC.The Social Ecology of Child Care -social ecology of child careThe overall environment in which child care occurs, both within and beyond the homeoprograms and values include government policy and support, community approval or disapproval, and the costs associated with various child- care options.
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- Summer '16
- Psychology, secure attachment, attachment Insecure attachment