Armed raids on voting and collation centers, and snatching of ballot boxes and papers from polling agents. 2.PSYCHOLOGICAL Threats against and harassment by security agents of opponents of the ruling party, which create or lead to political apathy.
48 Shooting on sight orders that breed fear in voters. Terror inflicted by political assassinations, which makes people scared to participate in politics or elections. Publication or broadcast of abusive, insulting or intimidating material or advertorials. Threats to life through phone calls, text messages etc. 3.STRUCTRAL Coercion of citizens by government to register or vote. Exclusionary acts and policies. Unequal opportunities for political parties and candidates. Deliberate changes in dates, venues or times of events to the disadvantage of others.
49 Partisan delimitation of electoral constituencies and location of polling booths. Excessive fees for collecting party nomination forms. Un free campaign. Reliance on money and brute force instead of moral integrity and competence. Restraints imposed on voters. Use of the incumbency factor to give undue advantages to some candidates. Announcement of false or fraudulent results. Bribing of electoral bodies like Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). Length delays in announcing
50 election results. Absence of (adequate) voting materials and election results forms. Absence of electoral officers from polling booths Partisan behavior police and other security agents Delay in voting. Discriminating acts and policies. Source: Nwolise, O.B. “Electoral Violence and Nigeria‟s 2007 Elections” journal of African Elections Vol.6 No.2, pp.155-179. The urge for democratic consolidation, the suspension of two-party system and military dictatorship have led the formations of multiplicity of parties and since the formation of multiplicity of parties in 1999, elections in Nigeria is characterized by all those defaults that are listed out in the table by Nwolise. In the Nigeria, election has been a controversial issue and it has really affected Nigerian political development in various aspects. But before
51 we go into that properly, let us trace the origin of this electoral violence in Nigeria. 3.3 The Etymology of Electoral Violence in Nigeria. Election in terms of origin is colonial in nature. Nothing was head about elections until the advent of colonials rule because Nigeria though democratic according to their levels of development was devoid of elections and electoral processes. With the existence of Lord Lugard, the British government was opportune to bring Clifford. The Clifford constitution brought the elective principle into Nigerian politics which provided for voting in lagos and Calabar. Restricted as this elective principle was, it was devoid of violence, but the same thing cannot be said of the subsequent elections. In fact, as the country advanced in her constitutional development, these were some centrifugal forces tending to hinder the much cherished amalgamation of 1914. One of the forces was the colonialists resorted to the manipulation of elections along communal lines.