Jews being pushed out of their homelandpalestine 2

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—Jews being pushed out of their homeland—Palestine 2. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius a. Erupted on August 24, 79 b. Cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum are destroyed and covered in ash 3. 5 Good Emperors a. 96 AD b. Nerva - introduces method to solve the problem of succession c. Trajan - succeeds Nerva d. Hadrian - succeeds Trajan
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e. 180 AD— Marcus Aurelius (last good emperor) i. Commodus —Marcus Aurelius’ son 4. Great economic prosperity- a. Currency b. Trade c. New cities d. Roads 5. Roman Culture- a. Imitation of Greek culture b. Architecture - meant to show Roman power i. Characteristics - 1. Concrete ** 2. Arch 3. Vault 4. Domes 5. Basilicas —government buildings/ bath houses 6. The Colosseum —most famous amphitheater c. Engineering 6. Roman Law- a. ** Civil law- i. Applied exclusively to its citizens ii. Praetors—Legal magistrates b. Law of Nations i. Slavery ** ii. Private ownership of property 7. Justinian- a. 520s b. Corpus Juris Civils —the body of civil law i. Aka the Code of Justinian c. Common law 8. The Third Century Crisis- a. Decline of the Roman Empire b. Germans- i. 230’s Cross Rhine and Danube c. Persians d. Berbers—African tribes e. Irish f. Defensive responsibilities 9. External Invasions: Barbarians at the Gate a. Rise of the German Confederation b. Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD)—repelled attacks Quadi and Macrommani c. Decius vs. the Goths (249-251 AD) d. Valerian vs. Shapur I (Persian king) i. The Sassanid Persians
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ii. Valerian is defeated 10. 2 Considerable Internal Crisis- a. Economic Crisis- i. Decline in agriculture production ii. Decline in food supplies 1. Starvation iii. Crisis in revenue 1. Inflation b. Political crisis- i. Question of succession The Origins of Christianity-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. The Religious Context- a. Spiritual needs/ psychological needs i. A sense of belonging b. Greek religion —they just changed the names of the Roman gods that were already established c. Numerous local gods d. The Imperial Cult — consist of 2 parts i. The worship of the god Roma ii. The worshiping of the cult of the emperor 2. Problems w/ Roman Religion- a. Failed to satisfy spiritual needs b. Worship of the Roman state c. no sense of Theology/belief d. the people feel Alienation 3. Mystery Religions- (characteristics) a. Conflict b/w good and evil b. Life after death c. Day of judgment d. Rituals/ ceremonies i. Sense of community e. Ex. The Cult of Isis 4. The Political Context: Troubles in Judea- a. Judea i. Ruled by succession of conquerors b. 63 BC—Pompey extends Roman control c. Romans are extremely lenient—Jews were exempt from army, no participation in the Imperial Cult d. Jews have Great hostility towards Rome i. Jews are monotheist—Greeks are polytheistic 5. Natural Resistance- a. “Client Kings” b. Herod —client king
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i. Jews hate Herod b/c of his total subservience to Rome ii. Herod heavily taxes the Jews c. 6 BC—shortly after his death causes Rebellion 6. 4 Distinct Groups- a. Pharisees - conservatives/ wants to remain apart from all i. Advocate Liberation from Roman dominance b. Sadducees - wealthy aristocrats i. Conservatives ii. Willing to collaborate w/ Rome-- Collaborators c.
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