The connecticut compromise created the us senate to

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-The Connecticut Compromise created the U.S. Senate to balance representation of people with representation of places and led to a clause in Article V of the Constitution that guarantees equal representation of the states in the Senate F. Electoral Districts and the Majority Rule -The use of districts tends to magnify the power of the majority -As an empirical matter, in the U.S., when the election is a tie, the parties win equal shares of the vote, and for every 1% of the vote above 50% a party gains an additional 2% of the seats -Just as districts magnify the seats of the majority party, they shrink the representation of minority parties > Most successful minority party was the Reform Party, led by Ross Perot in 1992 -The unequal distribution of minorities across the respective districts in the U.S. led to a reform of the Voting Rights Act in 1982 to provide for the creation of a legislative districts with sufficient numbers of black and Hispanic voters to elect House members representative of those groups - Gerrymandering: the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as t ogive unfair advantage to one political party > Can be used to both strengthen and dilute a party’s power > Finding satisfactory reform for redistricting has proved to be a challenge, but the most unusual attempt to evade the issue was an idea to make the redistricting process a “competition” among the residents of Ohio G. What It Takes to Win: Plurality Rule -The real standard of winning an election is in the plurality rule, not the majority rule > Plurality Rule is a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not necessarily a majority of the votes case > Majority Rule is a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in a representative body, a candidate must receive a majority (50% plus one) of all the votes cast in the relevant district -Plurality is often criticized for yielding electoral results that do not reflect the public’s preferences > In the aggregate, plurality rule with single-member districts tends to inflate the share of seats won by the largest party and deflate the others’ shares - Proportional Representation: A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote—used rarely in the United States -Plurality Rule in single-member districts has a very important consequence > It is the reason for two-party politics in the United States > Maurice Duverger, author of Party Politics , formalized his law of politics quite simply: plurality rule creates two-party politics; proportional representation encourages more than two parties -The rationale behind Duverger’s Law has two components: the strategic behavior of politicians and the behavior of voters > Politicians on the extremes cannot gain by forming a new party > A politician with a centrist orientation also cannot win the election if the center-right and center-left parties are not too extreme—voters follow similar logic -The Logic of Voters

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