-able] ] • [anti-[[ capital-ist]-ic]]] • [ [de-[colony-ize] ]-ation] • [anti-[[[dis-[establish-ment]]-arian]]ism]
Complex words: 2. Word compounding • lighthouse, shoplift, team manager, main-building, maggi-shack, campus-hub, concentration camp... • Words which are divisible into two other words. • These component words can be found independently in an English dictionary, but when they associate they form a compound word • The meaning of the union is not necessarily a function of the meaning of the two combining words. For ex. a lighthouse is neither a light nor a house . This process is called word compounding . • Internal constituent structure [[mosquito-control]- committee]
Hierarchical structure of a compound Wall-mounted toothbrush holder Wall- mounted Wall mounted toothbrush holder toothbrush tooth brush
A morpheme must • Be identifiable from one word to another Attack • Also contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word Squish-able Eat-able Read-able Stack Tack le Tax i (/tæksi/) Work-able This extra meaning is not necessarily equal in all cases, e.g. readable , does not mean ‘can be read’ in a literal sense, but rather ‘enjoyable to read’.
How can I recognise a morpheme? Morphemes must be identifiable from one word to another: identifying affixes: – un- : uncomplicated, unhappy, unclear , … – -able: variable, changeable, solvable , … – de- : deselect, dethrone, detoxify , … – -al: cultural, federal, liberal, modal , … – -ize: computerize, realize , …
Identifying the core element • Happy : un-happy, happi-ness, happi-ly; happier, happiest • Change : change-able, chang-er, un-chang-ed; changes, chang-ing • Select : de-select, select-ion, select-ive-ly; selects, selected • ?Liber -: liber-al, liber-al-ism, liber-ate, liber-ty • ?Oper -: oper-ate, oper-at-ion, oper-at-ion-al
• Some morphemes express some general sort of referential or informational content independent of the grammatical system of a particular language • Other morphemes are heavily tied to a grammatical function , expressing syntactic relationships between units in a sentence, or obligatorily-marked categories such as number or tense.
Distinguishing between morphemes • Bound vs free morphemes • Free morphemes can occur on their own: – happy, change, select, green, house , … • Bound morphemes can occur only if they are attached to other morphemes: – Affixes ( un-, -ness, -able, de-, -ive, -er , …) – liber-, oper-, circul-, legitim-, materi-, … • Eg. liber-ation, oper-ate, circul-ar, legitim-(a)cy, materi-al
General tendency • The core vocabulary of English is generally composed of words of Anglo-Saxon origin • There is a general tendency for core elements to be free morphemes • E.g. Hand • Hand-y, hand-le, hand-ful, mis-hand-le,
Bound morphemes as core elements: from Latin Circul- Circular Liber- Liberty Circulati Liberatio on n Circulat or Liberaliz e Circulat ory Libertin e
Problem case: Verbs of Latin origin re ceive de ceive con ceive per ceive re vert con vert per vert re late col late trans late re duce de duce con duce Should these be considered to be composed of a single morpheme?
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- Spring '16
- Ravi Banavar