What is the composition of vernix caseosa 138 CHAPTER 5 THE INTEGUMENTARY

What is the composition of vernix caseosa 138 chapter

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What is the composition of vernix caseosa?
138CHAPTER 5THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEMgreatly accelerated in the skin of smokers. Fibroblasts, which produce both collagen and elastic fibers, decrease in number. As a result, the skin forms the characteristic crevices and furrows known as wrinkles.The pronounced effects of skin aging do not become noticeable until people reach their late forties. Intraepidermal macrophage cells dwindle in number and become less-efficient phagocytes, thus decreasing the skin’s immune responsiveness. Decreased size of sebaceous glands leads to dry and broken skin that is more susceptible to infection. The production of sweat diminishes, which probably contributes to the increased incidence of heat stroke in the elderly. There is a decrease in the number of functioning melanocytes, resulting in gray hair and atypical skin pigmentation. Hair loss increases with aging as hair follicles stop producing hairs. About 25 percent of males begin to show signs of hair loss by age 30 and about two-thirds have significant hair loss by age 60. Both males and females develop pattern baldness. An increase in the size of some melanocytes produces pigmented blotching (age spots). Walls of blood vessels in the dermis become thicker and less permeable, and subcutaneous adipose tissue is lost. Aged skin (especially the dermis) is thinner than young skin, and the migration of cells from the basal layer to the epidermal sur-face slows considerably. With the onset of old age, skin heals poorly and becomes more susceptible to pathological condi-tions such as skin cancer and pressure ulcers. Rosacea(ro-ZAˉ-sheˉ-a=rosy) is a skin condition that affects mostly fair-skinned adults between the ages of 30 and 60. It is characterized by redness, tiny pimples, and noticeable blood vessels, usually in the central area of the face.Growth of nails and hair slows during the second and third decades of life. The nails also may become more brittle with age, often due to dehydration or repeated use of cuticle remover or nail polish.Several cosmetic anti-aging treatments are available to dimin-ish the effects of aging or sun-damaged skin. These include the following:Topical productsthat bleach the skin to tone down blotches and blemishes (hydroquinone) or decrease fine wrinkles and roughness (retinoic acid)Microdermabrasion(mı¯-kro¯ -DER-ma-bra¯-zhun; mikros=small; derm=skin; -abrasio=to wear away), a process that uses tiny crystals under pressure to remove and vacuum the skin’s surface cells to improve skin texture and reduce blemishesChemical peel, the application of a mild acid (such as glycolic acid) to the skin to remove surface cells to improve skin texture and reduce blemishes

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