Table 8-1, p. 210 – Relationships in the LPC Contingency Model Figure 8-1, p. 211 – Causal Relationships in the LPC Contingency Model The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership The path-goal theory of leadership examines how aspects of leader behavior influence subordinate satisfaction and motivation. In general, leaders motivate subordinates by influencing their perceptions of the likely consequences of different levels of effort. If subordinates believe that valued outcomes can be attained only by making a serious effort and that such an effort will be successful, than they are likely to make the effort. Aspects of the situation such as the nature of the task, the work environment, and subordinate characteristics determine the optimal level of each type of leadership behavior for improving subordinate satisfaction and effort. Figure 8-2, p. 213 – Causal Relationships in Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Figure 8-3, p. 214 – Causal Relationships for Effects of Supportive Leadership on Subordinate Effort Figure 8-4, p. 215 – Causal Relationships for Effects of Directive Leadership on Subordinate Effort Leadership Substitutes Theory Leadership substitutes theory identifies aspects of the situation that make leadership behavior redundant or irrelevant. Various characteristics of the subordinates, task and organization serve as substitutes for leadership and/or neutralizes of its effects. Substitutes make some types of behavior by the leader unnecessary and redundant, whereas neutralizers are constraints that prevent the leader from doing anything to improve conditions. Table 8-2, p. 217 – Specific Substitutes and Neutralizers for Supportive and Instrumental Leadership The Multiple-Linkage Model The multiple-linkage model describes how a leader can influence intervening variables to improve group effectiveness. The performance of a group or organizational subunit is highest when members have high task skill and motivation, they are efficiently organized, there is a high level of member cooperation, adequate resources are available, and unit activities are coordinated with those of interdependent units. These intervening variables are affected by a variety of situational variables in addition to the actions of the leader. In the short run, a leader can improve group performance by taking direct action to correct any deficiencies in the intervening variables. In the longer run, the leader can improve group performance by taking action to make the situation more favorable. These actions may involve reducing constraints, enhancing substitutes, altering the relative importance of the intervening variables, or making changes to indirectly improve the intervening variables. Figure 8-5, p. 221 – Causal Relationships in the Multiple-Linkage Model Table 8-3, p. 222 – Conditions Affecting the Intervening Variables in the Multiple-Linkage Model
Side 11 af 19 Table 8-4, p. 225 – Some Leader Actions to Deal with Deficiencies in Intervening Variables Cognitive Resources Theory
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- Fall '14