presented to the people a show of fighters summoned from all places and I

Presented to the people a show of fighters summoned

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presented to the people a show of fighters summoned from all places, and I presented a third show in the name of my grandson. I put on games in my own name four times, and in place of other magistrates twenty-three times. For the college of the quindecimviri, as master of the college, with M. Agrippa as colleague, I held the Secular Games in the consulship of C. Furnius and C. Silanus. When I was consul for the thirteenth time I was the first to hold games in honour of Mars, which after that time and then in following years were held by the consuls by decree of the senate and by law. I gave to the people hunts of African beasts in my own name or in the name of my sons and grandsons in the Circus or the Forum or in amphitheatres twenty-six times, at which about 3,500 beasts were killed. 4 Cicero De Officiis 1.42.150-151 Cicero on occupations We more or less accept the view on which trades and occupations we should regard as fit for a free man, and which we should regard as beneath him. First, occupations are ruled out that arouse people’s hatred, such as those of tax collectors and money-lenders. The occupations of all hired workers, who are paid for their manual labour, not for their skill, are base and unfit for a free man. For in these the very payment is the wage of slavery. We should also regard as base those who buy goods from merchants to sell on at once, for they would make no profit unless they told a pack of lies. And there is nothing more disgraceful than deception. All craftsmen are involved in base trade, for a workshop can have nothing worthy of a free man about it. Trades which provide for bodily pleasures are least acceptable: fishmongers, butchers, cooks, poulterers, fishermen as Terence says. Add to these, if you like, perfume sellers, dancers and the whole dice game. Those professions in which a greater degree of intelligence is found, or in which considerable benefit is looked for, such as medicine, or architecture, or teaching respectable subjects – these occupations are fit for those who have the right social rank. Trading, if it is on a small scale, must be regarded as base: but if it is on a large scale and brings in plenty of money, and imports large quantities of goods from all over the world, and distributes them to many people without deception, it should not be much criticised, and it even seems that it can perfectly justifiably be praised, if the traders have their fill of profit or rather are satisfied by it, and then make their way from port to their lands and estates, as they often have done from the sea to the harbour: of all things which are done for gain, nothing is better than agriculture, nothing more productive, nothing more delightful, nothing more fitting for a free man. 5 Cicero De Officiis 2.25.89 Cato’s opinion of farming When Cato was asked what was of greatest advantage in estate management, he replied: ‘Feeding your cattle properly.’ What was second? ‘Feeding them quite well.’ What was third?
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