New views say that this was a process of cross

This preview shows page 6 - 9 out of 12 pages.

New views say that this was a process of cross-fertilization of the colonies, Europe and Africa. Instead of describing European settling as discovery and conquest, they refer to it as contact and adaptation.
Europeans, after contacting forests and meadows in America, tried to replicate the environments they have known in Europe. Aggressive deforestation changed the landscape and climate of America. Also, many American societies emerged from European interaction. It was once thought that the essence of America came from Puritan migrants but much more people migrated to southern places. It was emphasized that English colonization was more centered around economics than religion. There were many different English migrants, migrating in many different fashions. More recent studies have also put more thought into internal conflicts between colonies. American colonial society is now seen as being made out of varied groups and mixtures of settlers, all with their own set of ambitions. Chapter 4: American Life in the Seventeenth Century Introduction In the 1600s, crude settlements became permanent, and, even though the colonists were still tied to England, regional differences took root. The Unhealthy Chesapeake In the early history of Chesapeake settlers, the American wilderness and disease ravaged the struggling people, and the settlements grew very slowly. Most immigrants were young men, and there was a shortage of women. Families were few and fragile, most men couldn’t mate, marriages didn’t last because one of them would probably die, and most children didn’t survive into adulthood. Grandparents were a rarity as well. Despite this, the people of the Chesapeake went on, and they eventually became immune to the diseases, more women allowed more families, and the populations of Virginia and Maryland increased to one of the most populous colonies. The Tobacco Economy Chesapeake was the perfect environment for tobacco, and many profit hungry settlers planted it before they planted food to eat, however, it ruined the soil and forced the colonists further west, provoking more Indian conflicts. Tobacco became an enormous export for the Chesapeake, and the price of tobacco decreased prices. The labor for this cultivation came from indentured servants. At the end of their “term of service,” servants would receive “freedom dues,” which included a small area of land. Virginia and Maryland employed the “headright” system, it granted fifty acres of land to anyone who paid for the passage of a servant. Those masters became the lords of great estates and dominated the agriculture and economy of the southern colonies. Indentured servants were called “white slaves,” and they represented the majority of immigrants that arrived in Virginia and Maryland in the 1600s. They led a hard and hopeful life, but as land became more scarce, masters were more reluctant to give servants their “freedom dues.” Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion
Many impoverished freed indentured servants crowded the Chesapeake, disappointed about not receiving their land and not being able to find a single woman to marry. They were not wanted by the

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture