Describe the structure and functions of cytoplasm, its cytosol, and the organelles listed below.
Microtubules: Cylindrical protein filament, from 18 to 30 nm in diameter, consisting of the protein tubulin; provides support, structure, and transportation.Organelles: A permanent structure within a cell with characteristic shapes that is specialized to serve a specific function in cellular activities (growth, maintenance and reproduction)Centrosome: dense networks of small protein fibres located near the nucleus, consists of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar material. oCentriole: cylindrical structures, each composed of nineclusters of three microtubules (triplets) arranged in a circular patternoPericentriolar material: contains hundreds of ring-shaped complexes composed of the protein tubulinoTubulin: the organizing centers for growth of the mitotic spindle, which plays a critical role in cell division, and for microtubule formation in nondividing cells. During cell division, centrosomes replicate so thatsucceeding generations of cells have the capacity for cell division.
Cilium (plural is cilia): A hair or hairlike process projecting from a cell that may be used to move the entire cell or to move substancesalong the surface of the cell. Flagellum (plural is flagella): much longer than cilia. Usually move an entire cell.Ribosome: A cellular structure in the cytoplasm of cells, composed of a small subunit and a large subunit that contain ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins; the site of protein synthesis.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): network of membrane-enclosed sacs or tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm and connect to thenuclear envelope.Cells contain two different types of ER:1.Rough ER: synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids that are transferred into cellular organelles, inserted into the plasma membrane, or secreted during exocytosis.