Emergency of Energy Hubs • Microgrids can integrate a multitude of local energy carriers (electricity, steam, natural gas, hot water, etc.) in an energy hub, which intertwines the generation, conversion, storage and consumption of diverse energy resources. • When a strong coupling between the operation of different energy carrier systems exists, microgrid controllers can integrate and operate all these energy carriers in coordination. • Synergies among various forms of energy are realized for optimizing the use of onsite resources and improving the social welfare. 39
Networked Energy Hubs • Networked microgrids are evolving toward a network of energy hubs that allows energy to flow more efficiently and more reliably across the underlying infrastructures. 40
Conclusions • The organic evolution of a smart grid is expected to come through the plug-and-play integration of certain basic structures (i.e., microgrids). • A microgrid is an autonomous group of controllable plug-and-play micro- sources and energy storage devices that are optimally placed and operated for the welfare of the end user, utility and the public overall. • Microgrids are normally connected to the main grid but are capable of isolating themselves in case of any disturbance in the main grid. • Microgrids can potentially provide a large number of benefits by increasing its efficiency of operation and improving reliability and quality of service to the customer satisfaction. • A large number of technical and regulatory issues need to be addressed carefully before the widespread implementation of microgrids, requiring a considerable amount of research and government intervention. 41
42 Thanks Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour
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