Max 8 contents 15 marks hkale 1996 biology paper ii

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Nature of Mathematics
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Chapter 5 / Exercise 5
Nature of Mathematics
Smith
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max. 8 Contents : 15 marks
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Nature of Mathematics
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Chapter 5 / Exercise 5
Nature of Mathematics
Smith
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HKALE 1996 Biology Paper II HKALE 1996 Biology Paper II 9. Biological importance of HK countryside (1) Habitat and sanctuary for wildlife. (a) Diversity of ecosystems The countryside is made up of a diversity of ecosystems ranging from upland grasslands, conifer plantations, broad-leaved woodlands, abandoned fields blending with lowland aquatic ecosystems such as seedbeds, freshwater wetlands and marshes. This diversity of ecosystems provides for a diversity of habitats. (b) Diversity of habitats, hence, a diversity of life (i) Since many different types of habitats are available, this support a wide variety of wildlife. The essential provisions for survival : food, shelter / coves, water and breeding sites exist in different forms in the habitat. (ii) Ecotones / "edge effects" In addition, this wide diversity of wildlife is enhanced by integrating of ecosystems / plant communities leading to the formation of ecotones / "edge effects", i.e., the requirements of any single species (for food, coves, shelter, water and breeding sites) are seldom found in any one single ecosystem or plant community. An animal often has to rely on one or more ecosystems or plant communities. The region where different ecosystems or plant communities meet is called an ecotones “edge effect”. The greater the diversity of ectones or edge effects, the grater the diversity if animal populations. Example 1. Herons / Egrets breed in woodland trees on hillocks or islands but utilise the margins of lowland creeks, abandoned paddy land and the margins of fishponds for feeding.
Example 2. Cormorants roost in large trees in the Mai Po area but fly out to the mudflats and Deep Bay shoreline to feed at dawn and dusk. The mosaic and blending of plant communities in the countryside allows for a high degree of eotones / "edge effect", hence, this contributes to a high diversity of wildlife. max. 6 (c) Uniqueness of ecosystem or habitat : Some of the ecosystems in the HK countryside are biologically unique in that they occur as the only representative type in Hong Kong. e.g. (a) Gei wais can only be found at Mai Po (b) Barrage ponds at Lai Chi Wo or Shum Chung. (c) Reed beds at Mai Po and Luk Keng. (d) Fung Shui woodlands Some habitats / ecosystems in the HK countryside are important because they represent significant remnants of what were previously extensive area of similar habitats in the surrounding region. max. 3 (d) Dredging of sea bed (reclamation activities) result in increase of suspended solids loading of sea water Effects Clogging of gills of fish, or causes fish to move away, result in loss in loss of fish stock for harvesting Smothering of sessile organisms, e.g. corals as the suspended particles redeposit Cuts off light for photosynthesis, this affects the producers and upset ecological balance in the sea Alleviation measures (accept alternatives which are true)
The government has legislated laws and penalty for offenders.(1) (a) To reduce organic loading from sewage effluents A system of sewage pipes is being installed to channel sewage effluent from the urban areas of Kowloon and Hong

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