LDL is not measured, it’s calculated by total HDL and triglycerides divided by 5 Video 2: Sources of Blood Cholesterol 1. Cholesterol made in the liver 2. Dietary Cholesterol - Egg yolk contain cholesterol ( but people should not be worry about this at all) 3. Dietary Fats - Affect LDL receptors - Trans fats are not good for us, they are the byproducts of hydrogenation (margarine) - Omega 3 fats are good for us (anti inflammatory) - Omega 6 fats have inflammatory properties - The lower the ratio of omega 3 to 6 the better the food - Linoleic acid (corn oil) can stimulate inflammation in blood vessels, esp when there aren’t enough antioxidants in the diet - Polyunsaturates do not raise HDL as much as saturated fats - Alpha-linolenic acid: converted to the fish oil or the docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid Activity 3: - Which type of fat does not affect cholesterol levels and is considered to be biochemically neutral? Monounsaturated Fats
- In the previous video, Dr. Schwarcz touched on the topic of omega fatty acids. They are an important part of the diet as they perform many functions within the body. Which class of fats do omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids belong to? Polyunsaturated fats - Based on the review of current scientific literature provided by Dr. Schwarcz, which of the following statements best summarizes the benefits of following a low fat/low cholesterol diet? It is not necessarily bad but there is little scientific evidence for the beneficial effects with respect to reducing heart disease. Video 3: - French Paradox - Replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats - The type of polyunsaturated fat you choose can make a difference - Flaxeed, walnut, and canola oil have a good omega 3 to 6 ratio Video 4: Foods that Lower Cholesterol: - Nuts - Specific margarines such as sitostenol but a lot have to be consumed for change to occur - 25g/day of soy protein will lower cholesterol But soy contains isoflavones, which have estrogenic properties - Oat Bran contains a form of soluble fiber called beta glubtan which has been shown to lower cholesterol In order to get 3g of beta glucan you need to eat 1 cup of Oat bran hot cereal - Bile Acids: are secreted into digestive tracts in to break down fats. After performing its job, bile acids are reabsorbed into the bloodstream and recycled. - The body makes bile acids from cholesterol - However, if you have some beta glucans in your digestive tracts, it ties up the biles acids, which causes them to be excreted out - This means that more bile acid will have to be made from cholesterol decreasing cholesterol levels Diets to Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease 1. Dean Ornish - Very low fat diet with less than 7% calories coming from fats - Showed regression in arterial deposits - Included group therapy and exercise 2. The China Study - avoid meat, oil, fish, poultry, and dairy - Eat unprocessed grains, legumes, vegtables, and fruit 3. The Statin Drugs - Anti-inflamatory 4. Reduce saturated fats, Increase Carbs - Saturated fats mostly raise the more beingn, large particle LDL - Switching to a diet that reduces saturated fat and increases carbs may reduce total LDL but increase small particle LDL - Can reduce HDL
- Carbs reduces fatty acids being used as fuel (they use the carbs instead, leaving the fats to pile up) so triglycerides increase 5. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment - Low carb, high fat, reduced sugar diet, in order to achieve healthy levels of insulin, blood lipids and good cholesterol - This means reducing sugar, potatoes, pasta, rice, wheat flour, bread and embracing olive oil, nuts, butter, ful fat cream, oily fish and fattier meat cuts Activity 5: - Disadvantages of replacing saturated fats with carbs HDL decreases Small particle LDL increases Triglycerides increases Video 5: - The people who had the best diet also were the most physically active
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- Spring '11
- Nutrition, Atherosclerosis