May be an obstacle to the attainment of the heros

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may be an obstacle to the attainment of the hero’s goal, the villain helps focus the hero’s energies on it. The villains of literature are seen as alternate targets to reality. In children’s fiction, the villain may represent parental oppression or undervaluation. The fight with the villain becomes the struggle for freedom and self- assertion. In Luthi’s opinion, “Even the villains of fa iry tales are useful because they are symbols of evil, through which the child can learn that evil can be conquered or perhaps even transformed” (qtd. in Crawford). Frye says that agon or conflict is the archetypal theme of romance. He is of the opinion that the closer the story is to myth, greater the possibility that “the enemy will take on demonic mythical qualities.” Frye further clarifies: “The enemy is associated with winter, darkness, confusion, sterility, moribund life, and old age, and the hero with spring, dawn, order, fertility, vigor and youth” ( AC 192, 187). Aspects of Evil in The Lord of the Rings Sauron, the Artificer of Evil: Sauron means terrible in Kvenian, a little- known Norwegian language, which also provided Tolkien with Istari , which <402-670>
Language in India ISSN 1930-2940 14:1 January 2014 Dr. Shobha Ramaswamy, M.A., B.Ed., DCE, M.Phil., Ph.D. Archetypes in Fantasy Fiction: A Study of J. R. R. Tolkien and J. K. Rowling 101 means wise (“Sauron”). The saurian echo of his appellation is an indicator of his snake-like personality. Sauron is also known by several other names such as “Enemy,” “The Dark Lord,” “The Lidless Eye” and “The Nameless One.” He is the titular “Lord of the Rings,” whose lust for power and domination corrupts the paradisiacal beauty of Middle-earth. Though never seen, his pervasive presence is felt throughout the book. In Tolkien’s universe as described in The Silmarillion , Morgoth is the archetype of Satan. He rebels against Illuvatar the creator and becomes the first Dark Lord. Sauron is his successor. Tolkien’s Sauron rebels against the god - like Aulo the Smith and forges the magical rings which would enable him to dominate the world. Using his cunning, he enlists followers to support his selfish cause. He loses many battles but always returns to power through tremendous effort. Sauron fits into the ‘Fallen Angel’ archetype, since he is portrayed as a Maia , an angelic being. Like Satan, he falls through envy and the lust for power. Sauron is associated with the powers of darkness, as opposed to light. Mo rdor is “the land of the Shadow” and its ruler represents the darker side of the Self. According to Jungian psychology, confronting the ‘Shadow’ and assimilating it is a necessary step towards becoming an individuated being. It is only after Frodo encounters the negative aspect of his self in the form of Sauron’s force embodied in the Ring that he is able to come to terms with himself. As a misleading, threatening and much older male figure, Sauron acts as a ‘Dark Father,’ or “the cruel father - figure who seeks the hero’s death” (Frye, AC 190). In this context, the struggle of Frodo to defeat Sauron through <402-670>

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