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Since the end of World War II, there have been more than four hundred wars.Worldwide, wars now kill about 1.6 million people a year. Also, many millions more die of starvation and other war-related causes.How many wars are going on right now?15PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
Wars and Armed Conflicts in progress…SyriaAfghanistanPakistanIraqNigeriaSouth SudanLibyaD.R. CongoIsrael and GazaUkraineBurma (Myanmar)Burundi ……PHIL12-JINSUN PARK16
Why go to War?Self-defense against aggression, Expansion of one’s territory, Humanitarian intervention, Ideological or religious motives, Preventive or Preemptive war……Question:Do you think all wars are unjust, some wars are just and some unjust, or all wars I can think of have been justifiable?17PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
Three main positions on the ethical justification of warRealismPacifismJust war theoryPHIL12-JINSUN PARK18
RealismMorality does not apply in the context of war (amoral).Morality is irrelevant to actions occurring in war.The goal is to win.“If terror bombing works, then it should be used, but if it does not work, then it should be avoided.”PHIL12-JINSUN PARK19“If we had lost the war [WWII], we’d all have been prosecuted as war criminals [of bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima in August 1945] .” Former Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara in The Fog of War (documentary, 2003)
PacifismThe opposition to the use of violence. (absolute and selective pacifism)Respect for persons, including the enemy, and the recognition of a common humanitye.g. Gandhi (1869-1948): “violence only begets further violence.”What are strengths and weaknesses of (absolute) pacifism?20PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
RealismPacifism21PHIL12-JINSUN PARKNo moral limits in warfare.War is always wrong.
Just War TheoryA doctrine that gives criteria that a war must meet if it is justified.“Some political theories die and go to heaven; some, I hope, die and go to hell. But some have a long life in this world ….” (Michael Walzer, 455)22PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
Just War TheoryJus ad Bellum + Jus in Bello(justness of going to war + justness in war)St. Augustine c. 400 CESt. Augustine c. 400 CEMedieval JuristsMedieval JuristsHague and Geneva Conventions20thCenturyHague and Geneva Conventions20thCentury23PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
Jus ad Bellum:The just conditions for going into a warJust CauseProportionalityLast ResortRight Intention(Legitimate authority and public declaration)24PHIL12-JINSUN PARK
Just CausePHIL12-JINSUN PARK251. Protection from external attack?3. Preventing a nation from obtaining nuclear weapons?2. Ridding another country of a despotic and dangerous leader??????