rulers remain loyal to the British Government but their soldiers revolted against British rule.4) CAUSES OF FAILURE OF REVOLT -(a) Premature Revolt - It is criticized that the Revolt broke out before the fix date of May, 31st1857. This date fixed for Revolt was known only to a free leaders but because of certain events like trial of Mangal Pandey and his execution and dismissal of Indian soldiers, loose their patience.(b) Lack of Central leadership - There was no-central leadership to guide the rebel sepoys and civilian. It was unplanned war. The rebel leaders lacked national perspective. They were fighting for restoration of their lost privileges and status.(c) Lack of common cause - The revolt was not inspired by a common cause. The sepoys of Meerut on their arrival at Delhi declared Bahadurshah the Mugbal Emptor as the Emperor of India but after his capture by the British, this common cause was lost.(d) Lack of national consciousness - There was no consciousness of nationalizism i.e. integrated nation among the common people, the ruler or the sepoys. There was regionalism, provincialism and casteism among the people, ruler and sepoys.(e) Un co-ordinated efforts - There was no central leadership to provide co-ordinated planned to fight. The Revolt was totally dependent upon the local people.(f) Absence of effective leadership - The Moghul Emperor Bahadur Shah was aged, 82 yearsold, was the weakest leader. He lacked leadership qualities. After his arrest there was no central leader to guide the moment. There was lack of chain of inspiring leaders.
(g) Lack of nationwide dimensions - The movement remained confined to few areas. Sindh, Punjab, Central and Eastern Bengal and South India remained unaffected and undisturbed. Rajputana was loyal to the Britishers.(h) Loyalty of several rulers to the British - Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Bhopal and most of the Sikh States of Punjab were loyal to the British and some of them supported the British Rulers. The Gorkhas of Nepal rendered excellent services to British.(i) Lack of resources - The rebels did not possess sufficient material and equipment of .war as compared with the British. The rebellion soldier had to fight with traditional weapons which were no match to the modern weapons possessed by British forces. According to Lord Canning who was the Governor General of India, when th# Revolt broke up expressedhis views that the fate of English in India would have been different had the native rulers supported the rebel.(j) Lack of Good General - Though Nana Saheb, Tatya Tope and Rani Laxmibai were brave and full of courage but they were no match against British Generals who had fought severalbattles.(k) Jealousy of leaders - The leaders at different places were jealous and suspicious of one another. The only one thing common was their own interest against maltreatment of the British rulers to them.