In a study of a disease in which all cases that developed were ascertained if

In a study of a disease in which all cases that

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4.In a study of a disease in which all cases that developed were ascertained, if the relative risk for the association between a factor and the disease is equal to 1.0, then (Select the best answer): [ONE POINT] a.The study design used is case-control designb.The study design used is cohort designc.Either matching or randomization has been unsuccessfuld.The comparison group used was unsuitable, and a valid comparison is not possiblee.None of the above The best answer is (e) because when the relative risk (RR) is equal to 1, then it can only imply that there was no association between the disease in question and the exposure. 5. A random sample of middle age sedentary males was selected from six census tracts, and each man was examined for hypertension. All those having the hypertension disease were excluded from the study. All others were randomly assigned to either a diet/exercise group, which followed for a three-year program of systematic exercise, or to a group which had no diet/exercise program. Both groups were observed semi- annually for any difference in incidence of hypertension. What type of study design you would assign to this information? Why? [ONE POINT] Cohort study design: According to La Torre (2010), in a cohort study, the researcher first selects study participants who are free from the disease and then follows them overtime to compare the incidence of the disease. In the study above, participants with hypertension were excluded and those who were free from hypertension were assigned to either diet/exercise group then followed overtime. What will be the measure of association that you will use in this study? [ONE POINT] Relative Risk: Cohort studies answers the question on the incidence of a disease which is the aim of the above study.
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APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY 4 6. Several studies have found that approximately 80% of cases of lung cancer are due to asbestos exposure. a. What is the name of this measure? [ONE POINT] Attributable Risk (AR) b. Interpret the measure you selected? [ONE POINT] Attributable Risk refers to the proportion of a disease that is as a result of a specific exposure (La Torre, 2010). For instance, in the above case, it means that out of 100 people who have lung cancer, 80 of them got it due to exposure to asbestos. 7. Complete the Table 1 (Table below) by calculating the polio incidence rates, disease- specific mortality rates, and case-fatality for each of the past five years. Interpret the data and the trend over time. [THREE POINTS] Table 1. Incidence, mortality and case fatality. # New Midyear Incidence Mortality Case-fatality Year Cases # Deaths Population per 100,000 per 100,000 (%) 1986 45 5 340,000 13 2 11 1987 62 11 353,680 18 3 18 1988 49 10 397,880 12 3 20 1989 82 14 442,620 19 3 17 1990 90 18 433,920 21 4 20 Incidence Rate = New cases of Polio/Total population at risk x 100,000 1986 = 45/340,000 x 100,000 = 13.23 which is app. 13 1987 = 63/353,680 x 100, 000 = 17.8 app. 18 1988 = 49/397,880 x 100,000 = 12.3 app. 12 1989 = 82/442620 x 100,000 = 18.5 app. 19 1990 = 90/433, 920 x 100,000 = 20.7 app. 21 The incidence rate for polio increased in 1986 before dropping in 1988 and then increasing again in 1989 and 1990.
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APPLIED EPIDEMIOLOGY 5 Disease Specific Mortality Rate = Deaths from Polio/Total population x 100,000 1986 = 5/340,000 x 100,000 = 1.47 which is app. 2 deaths from polio per 100,000 people
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