DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Alternatively organisms may partly manufacture their

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Alternatively, organisms may partly manufacture their own adaptations . An example are mammals, which produce their own optimum body temperature. To be useful, adaptations must often occur simultaneously in a number of different parts of the body. A change from a more carnivorous to a more vegetarian diet necessitates alterations not only of the teeth, digestive juices, and length of the digestive tract but also in habit and defense mechanisms. Even in humans and other mammals, the blood is chemically quite closely related to seawater. Some of the most fundamental biological adaptations are chemical and genetic. The conditions in which the cells of the body can live are restricted and have changed very little since life first arose in the sea. Natural selection is an essential mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin , and is the process by which those members of a particular species that are better adapted to their environment survive longer and produce more offspring than the poorer adapted. The basic concept is that environmental conditions (or "nature") determine (or "select")how well particular traits of organisms can serve the survival and reproduction of the organism; organisms lacking these traits might die before reproducing, or be less fecund. As long as environmental conditions remain the same, or similar enough that these traits continue to be adaptive, such traits will become more common within populations. Natural Selection is a key mechanism that might explain how evolution took place. A famous example of natural selection is how in England, when certain areas of the country became heavily industrialized, the pale bark of trees in those regions became coated with black soot. Light-colored moths, formerly well adapted to blend with their environment, became clearly visible against the sooty background of the trees and were easy prey for birds. Darker moths, previously at a disadvantage against the light bark, were now better adapted for survival. Their dark color became an advantage, and subsequently the darker moths became the predominant variety in the industrial regions. According to Charles Darwin 's theory of organic evolution , plants and animals all evolved over a long period of time from simple into more complex life forms. Darwin believed that every species produced many more offspring than can possibly survive, resulting in intense competition among individuals for limited resources. Survivors adapted to their environment through chance genetic mutations which were passed on through inheritance. Social Darwin ism is the concept of "survival of the fittest society." Social Darwinism, combined with the popular idea that the United States had an obligation to spread political liberty, Christianity, and civilization to the rest of the world helped encourage and rationalize United States expansion and involvement in world affairs. Known as the Father
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Alternatively organisms may partly manufacture their own...

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