expression and self fulfillment of their members Participants confirm criticize

Expression and self fulfillment of their members

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expression and self-fulfillment of their members • Participants confirm, criticize, develop, and find resources for, or to help complete, the development of an innovation • Typical in start-ups • Creates an environment where participants thrive on an intense, emotional commitment to the nature of work • Changes are fast and spontaneous • Motivation remains highly intrinsic and intense • Leadership is achieved and not gained by position Multiculturalism and Diversity – Adler’s 4 Phases • The success of a MNE is determined by its ability to manage multiculturalism and diversity which today are encountered domestically and internationally • American professor Nancy Adler suggests a 4 Phase “international evolution” which MNE’s go through in their development Phase I - Domestic corporations Phase II - International corporations Phase III - Multinational corporations Phase IV - Global corporations Domestic firms: cultural diversity does not affect firm’s organizational culture nor its interaction with the outside (customer, etc.) only domestic multi- culturalism is in play International firms: exporting & producing abroad, use of home country management, diversity focus is from the inside outward Multinational firms: personnel from all over the world, less attention to the outside, focus on managing diversity inside the firm Global corporations: internal & external, everyone needs to develop cross- cultural skills to work effectively with employees, customers, suppliers, etc.
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Homogeneous groups: members have similar backgrounds and generally perceive, interpret and evaluate events in similar ways Token groups: all members but one has the same background. Bicultural groups: two or more members represent each of two distinct cultures. Multicultural groups: composed of individuals form three or more different ethnic backgrounds. Potential Problems of Diversity • Erroneous perceptions caused by preconceived stereotypes • Inaccurate biases • Inaccurate communication or miscommunication • Result of using unclear words, manner in which situations are interpreted, and differences in perceptions of time Advantages of diversity • Enhances creativity, leads to better decisions, and results in more effective and productive performance • Helps generate more and better ideas • Prevents groupthink • Social conformity and pressures on individual members of a group to conform and reach consensus • Enhances relationships with customers Multicultural Group (Team) Effectiveness • Focus of attention must be determined by the stage of team development • Entry stage - Focus on building trust and developing team cohesion • Work stage - Focus is directed toward describing and analyzing the problem or task that has been assigned • Action stage - Focus shifts to decision making and implementation Building trust Swift trust/ passable trust Knowledge: direct knowledge/ reflected knowledge
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