IPO’s control nomination More partisan candidate Less representative of median voter Less compromise Putting on an Election Largely governed by states Different types of ballots Different voting technologies Different rules
Running for Election Challenging Campaigns – candidates connect with voter through media appearances. No longer personal connection Strategy to Win… Candidate visibility and appeal Use of opinion polls Cost Big Buck$$$ Focus groups Overall shift to the marketing of candidates The important election is the next one, not the previous one Policy making behavior is driven by want to be reelected, not necessarily on the issues/electorate you were voted into by If election do not result in representation of median voter, who is to blame? Parties? Nomination Process? Structure of elections? Campaign tactics? Lecture 10 - Voting Behavior Understand the importance of vote choice to democracy Have some understanding of why people vote, or don’t Have some understanding of why people vote the way they do Ways to Participate in Politics Voting Campaign activities Citizen initiated contact Local community activities Factors of Low Turnout Voting laws Voter registration 2 party system Election schedules and frequency Factors that Affect Individual Desire to Vote Socioeconomic status Psychological engagement with politics The broader political and social context with which an individual is connected Resources necessary to participate Group characteristics – gender, age, race Theories of Voter Choice Sociological Model Voters choose who to vote for long before campaigns, speeches, debates, etc.
Group characteristics strongly determined vote Social-Psychological Model Product of individual attitudes Attachment to a party Opinions on candidates Views on prominent issues for particular election Rational Choice Cost-benefit calculation Explaining Voter Choice Party Identification Candidate Image Issues Retrospective Voting – vote determined by past record Prospective Voting – vote determined by belief in candidates future performance Types of Election Results Maintaining – partisan orientation remains at status quo Deviating – majority party shifts to minority Realigning – major change as minority that won majority stays for multiple elections Lecture 11 – Congress Functions and powers of Congress Difference between individual and the institution Understand structure of institution Understand the culture/context of being in Congress Understand why Congress is the way it is, dysfunctional, partisan sandbox Congress is the major agenda setter but President is supposed to “lead the way” Lawyers, businessmen, and academia occupations account for 93% of Congress Cloture – ending a filibuster requires a 60 person majority in Senate Congress has never been loved. People approve of their own representative but not of Congress Current congressional salary is $174,000 Responsibilities of Congress Represent constituents
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