democracy (one man, one vote – power shared among all power regardless of their wealth or education), socialism (economic equality – even the material possessions of all people were to be made equal) o Fraternite fraternity Ethnic or linguistic identity should be the highest of all religions nationalism, every ethnic group should have the right to their own nation state All three of these ideologies conflicted with each other o Want to make them equal? – have to treat them unfairly by taking from the rich and giving to the poor o These ideologies all posed a dire threat to the conservatives – to the statesmen that inspired the Congress of Vienna o To the extent that they adopted these ideologies, then the peace and quiet of Europe would be impaired Second current of change = Industrial Revolution The Factor System and Steam power Revolutions (1750-1850) Three overlapping revolutions o Mechanization Applied to mining, textile production, wood cutting, metallurgy, o Factory System Putting all of the machines in one building will make it more efficient Required a power supply – third revolution o Energy Steam engine, powered by coal Human power over nature expressed in the locomotive
o People, goods, and information were no longer restrained o The speed and the volume with which they could travel exploded o Telegraph allowed for virtually instantaneous communication Put a premium on mass markets o Adam Smith had argued that the way to expand markets for everyone is to practice free trade – within nations and among nations o International free trade made slow progress – GB gradually lowered its tariffs against foreign goods until 1846 with the abolition of the Corn Laws (tariff on the importation of foreign grain), GB became the first country in the world that became completely free trade o GB also had an empire and began trading with the independent states of Latin America Zollverein 1834 – toll union/tariff union Toll gates at every border inhibit commerce in Germany The toll gates demolished by a Prussian official to initiate free trade among most states Prussians were in favor of progressive economic policy as long as it did not impinge on their political control Participated in free market capitalism but kept up their oppression Great Britain was the financial, naval, and colonial power in the world – remained 90% agricultural yet even farming had undergone so many technological changes that it still fits under the Green Revolution Began with Columbus and the Columbian exchange – brought crops such as potatoes and sugar beans Use of crop rotation and fertilizer Rural labor became a free market – emancipation of serfs o Only in Russia and the Balkans is serfdom still in place Agricultural advancement allowed for huge population growth – growth rate of ~ 1% per year Instead of having a large family being an advantage, children could
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