percent of Brazil total energy demand but un like many others developing

Percent of brazil total energy demand but un like

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percent of Brazil total energy demand, but un-like many others developing countries the greatest share (20 percent) is modern biomass that is deeply inserted into the agro-industrial production system. Brazil is the second in the world ranking of electric- ity biomass generation only after United States, and almost 4.6 percent of all domestic electricity supply Source: Furtado (2013); Ren 21 (2013) carbon energy is crucial. A state of energy poverty refers to the unavailability of cooking facilities with modern fuels and the absence of electrical lighting for reading or other household and productive ac- tivities after sunset. As of 2009, 1.4 billion people lacked access to electricity, 85 percent of them in rural areas. Almost 2.7 billion people rely on woody biomass fuels for cooking. Across the South, the is generated by biomass conversion, mostly of sug-arcane bagasse. Ethanol and biodiesel are already important biofuels substitutes for gasoline and diesel oil in some countries. They can be consumed mixed or pure with the adaptation of the engines. Bioetha-nol is produced from food crops, as corn or sug-arcane, and biodiesel is obtained from palm, soya, or any vegetable oil. In the case of first generation biofuels where the bioenergy raw material is not a crop residue, energy use can compete with food production or with other important agriculture raw materials. Second generation technologies like hydrolysis, pyrolysis, and even gasification, can use agricultural cellulose rich residues in the production of ethanol and other fuels, like diesel, kerosene, and synthetic gas. Second generation technologies are expected to reduce the challenge energy-food competition. energy-poor are faced with the perverse situation that even though they consume less energy than the majority of the world’s population, they pay the highest price per unit of energy. The poorest in the developing countries, typically in rural areas, thus spend a higher share of their resources (income and time) on providing energy to the household than the prevailingly urban higher-income groups (Sova- LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 61
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Box 8. Energy hubs in Kasese, Uganda Only 10 percent of the population in the district of Kasese, Uganda, have access to the power grid. People are restricted to the use of kerosene or ta- dooba, a paraffin product, in order to enjoy after- sunset lighting in their homes. Providing access to safer and cleaner energy sources is thus a priority, but alternatives must be affordable so they do not exceed current energy expenses, which correspond to roughly one dollar per day. The Access2Innovation initiative gathers in- terested stakeholders from various backgrounds (companies, public authorities, universities, etc.) to develop a solution that addresses energy needs in Kasese. The framework discussed for this solu-tion is the creation of energy hubs, which would be centrally located close to schools and commerce, offering the recharge of batteries that need to be light enough for a child to carry home for use at night. Local energy consumption is low. The level of
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