This article reviews the research The authors contributed equally to this

This article reviews the research the authors

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This article reviews the research. The authors contributed equally to this article. Address correspondence to author at Iowa State University, Department of Psychology, W112 Lago- DEFINITIONSeither marcino Hall, Ames, IA 50011-3180; e-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] Questions about specific aspects of the meta-analyses should beKey terms used by the research community often meaniastate.edu. to Brad J. Bushman.something different to the general public and public policy- addressed VOL. 12, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2001 Copyright © 2001 American Psychological Society353 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Meta-Analytic Review of Video-Game Violence makers. In this article, we use the following, more precise,violent ones. Fourth-grade girls (59%) and boys (73%) report meanings common to media-violence researchers.that the majority of their favorite games are violent ones (Buchman & Funk, 1996). Violent MediaAnother problem involves the lack of parental oversight. Violent media are those that depict intentional attempts byTeens in grades 8 through 12 report that 90% of their parents individuals to inflict harm on others. An “individual” can be anever check the ratings of video games before allowing their pur- nonhuman cartoon character, a real person, or anything in be-chase, and only 1% of the teens’ parents had ever prevented a
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tween. Thus, traditional Saturday-morning cartoons (e.g., “Mightypurchase based on its rating (Walsh, 2000). Also, 89% reported Mouse,” “Road Runner”) are filled with violence.that their parents never limited time spent playing video games. Ratings provided by the video- game industry do not match those provided by other adults and game-playing youngsters. Aggression Many games involving violence by cartoonlike characters Aggression is behavior intended to harm another individualare classified by the industry as appropriate for general audi- who is motivated to avoid that harm. It is not an affect, emo-ences, a classification with which adults and youngsters dis- tion, or aggressive thought, plan, or wish. This definition ex-agree (Funk, Flores, Buchman, & Germann, 1999). cludes accidental acts that lead to harm, such as losing control of an auto and accidentally killing a pedestrian, but includes behaviors intended to harm even if the attempt fails, such asVIOLENCE ON TELEVISION AND AT THE MOVIES when a bullet fired from a gun misses its human target.Five decades of research into the effects of exposure to vio- lent television and movies have produced a thoroughly docu- Violencemented and highly sophisticated set of research findings. It is Violence refers to extreme forms of aggression, such asnow known that even brief exposure to violent TV or movie physical assault and murder. All violence is aggression, but notscenes causes significant increases in aggression, that repeated all aggression is violence.exposure of children to media violence increases their aggres- siveness as young adults, and that media violence is a signifi- cant risk factor in youth violence (Bushman & Huesmann, VIDEO-GAME STATISTICS 2001; Huesmann et al., 2001).
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