tween. Thus, traditional Saturday-morning cartoons (e.g., “Mightypurchase based on its rating (Walsh, 2000). Also, 89% reportedMouse,” “Road Runner”) are filled with violence.that their parents never limited time spent playing video games.Ratings provided by the video-game industry do not matchthose provided by other adults andgame-playing youngsters.AggressionMany games involving violence by cartoonlike charactersAggression is behavior intended to harm another individualare classified by the industry as appropriate for general audi-who is motivated to avoid that harm. It is not an affect, emo-ences, a classification with which adults and youngsters dis-tion, or aggressive thought, plan, or wish. This definition ex-agree (Funk, Flores, Buchman, & Germann, 1999).cludes accidental acts that lead to harm, such as losing controlof an auto and accidentally killing a pedestrian, but includesbehaviors intended to harm even if the attempt fails, such asVIOLENCE ON TELEVISION AND AT THE MOVIESwhen a bullet fired from a gun misses its human target.Five decades of research into the effects of exposure to vio-lent television and movies have produced a thoroughly docu-Violencemented and highly sophisticated set of research findings. It isViolence refers to extreme forms of aggression, such asnow known that even briefexposure to violent TV or moviephysical assault and murder. All violence is aggression, but notscenes causes significant increases in aggression, that repeatedall aggression is violence.exposure of children to media violence increases their aggres-siveness as young adults, and thatmedia violence is a signifi-cant risk factor in youth violence(Bushman & Huesmann,VIDEO-GAME STATISTICS2001; Huesmann et al., 2001).