Many working groups had their own history and customs

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Many working groups had their own history and customs (distinctive, self-contained community)-Ex: Hat finishers had their own language: “shopped” means hired, “bagged” means fired, “cried off” means quitting work and if a boy apprenticed a hatter, the boy was “under teach”-Women workers found similar social meaning in their jobs most important fact about wage-earning women was their youth it made it easier for women to accept miserable terms under which they labored, but still did not lack sense of solidarity/self-respect-Women workers rarely wielded the craft power that men did: men could hire his own helpers, supervise them and paid them from his earnings many factory managers put this responsibility on skilled workers when increasingly sophisticated work called for shop-floor supervision Dispersal of authority common in 19TH century industry-High degree of autonomy still had its downs workers who paid his helpers may exploit themSYSTEMS OF CONTROL-Technology advances workers increasingly lose their proud independence-One cause is what Henry Ford called mass production: which led to mechanization-As dedicated machines (machines set up to do the same job constantly) emerged, need for skilled operatives diminished-Employers attracted to dedicated machinery because it increased output (they did not care about workers’ jobs)-Frederick W. Taylor: expert on metal-cutting methods: believed that the engineer’s approach might be applied to managing workers: scientific management-To get maximum work from individual worker, you must first eliminate brain work from manual labor and therefore, it would deprive workers of the authority they exercised on shop floor (workers do simple tasks they are told to do)-Managers subjected each task to time-and-motion study by engineer who would analyze and time each job with a stopwatchworkers should be paid at differential rates based on their time Taylor assumed that only money mattered to workers and would automatically respond to lure of higher payment-Scientific management not a great success implementing it was expensive and workers resisted the job-analysis method Taylor still achieved something of fundamental importance: he was a brilliant publicist and his ideas spread throughout American industryTHE LABOR MOVEMENT-Wherever industrialization took place, workers formed unionsREFORMERS AND UNIONISTS
-Thomas B. McGuire: wanted to establish a egalitarian society where every citizen can hope to become economically independent: Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor (1869)-Knights boasted elaborate ritual and ceremony calculated to appeal to fraternal spirit of 19THcentury workers: sense of comradeship harnessed to labor reform goal to “give voice to the grand undercurrent of might thought…urging them on to perfect organization through which to gain the power to make labor emancipation possible”-

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