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Technicaleclecticism requires looking at many different approaches and then choosing a set of techniques to use and adopt.This collection of techniques can be used without necessarily subscribing to one ideology and the “bag of tricks” can be modified depending on the client and the situation.
Theoretical integration refers to the practice of creating a new conceptual framework that borrowsideas from different theories to make a “new” theory.Theoretical integration is more than just a collection of techniques. It involves synthesizing different theories and then combining those theories in such a way as to develop a new construct to follow. The assumption is that the combination of ideas will be better than either of the theories standing on its own.The Common Factors approach searches different theories for similaritiesand common elements.These factors are then surmised and developed into a core set of variables that need to exist in an effective counseling model. The premise is that since these factors appear across many different orientations, their significance must be greater than the other factors where there is a great deal of disagreement.Spiritualityis described as a capacity and tendency that is innate and unique to all people that moves the individual toward knowledge, love, meaning, transcendence, and connectedness.Spirituality is gaining much attention in counseling and it is an intensely personal and subjective concept. This makes it very hard to study but the consensus seems to be that open and honest discussion about spirituality may be required in effective counseling relationships, particularly if the client expresses a concern related to it. This does not mean that the client and counselor must agree on spiritual issues, they should, however, be aware of each other’s particular beliefs.Spirituality and counseling have similar goalsemphasizing self acceptance, forgiveness, accepting personal responsibility, and letting go of destruction behavior patterns.Because spiritual issues play such a large part in human existence, separating spiritual ideals from the counseling environment is unnecessary and almost impossible. Spirituality should be used to enhance the therapeutic relationship and foster a healing process that combines the strength of both.When an observer is conducting a naturalistic observation, they should attempt to be as unobtrusiveas possible. Unobtrusive measures are more likely to be successful than conspicuous or obtrusive measures. People who know they are being watched will often behave in a different way. This is called reactivity. Unobtrusive measures overcome the potential for this.The technique which involves observing behaviors as they spontaneously occur in a real-life or naturalsetting is called naturalistic observation.