Imagining the worst consequences may lead to fear or

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However, just as fantasy may be part of the solution, it may become part of the problem. Imagining the worst consequences may lead to fear, or reliving a bad situation may lead to anger and depression. Also, imagining solutions to problems instead of actually  solving them can have negative consequences. When a person actually starts to live in  the world of fantasy they created, instead of facing the real world and real challenges, it  has become pathological. Identification Identification (sometimes also called introjection) involves identifying with someone  else, taking on their  personality  characteristics, in order to solve some emotional  difficulty and avoid anxiety. This was originally  Freud 's solution to  Oedipus  and Electra  complexes: identify with the same sex parent and try to become like him or her. Undoing The defense mechanism of "undoing" is based on the notion that it is possible to make  amends, to correct mistakes made. In essence, it involves feeling guilty and trying to do  something to undo the harm that may have been inflicted. It is trying to reverse or undo  a feeling by acting in some opposite or compensatory manner. The simplest example of  this defense mechanism at work is an apology. Freud used undoing to explain some obsessive-compulsive acts, such as a youth  reciting the alphabet backwards to undo his sin of sexual thoughts and feelings. Withdrawal Withdrawal involves the removal of oneself from anything and everything that carries  reminders of painful or stressful thoughts and emotions. Since normal social life  involves many situations that are connected to the painful event, and friends or  colleagues may ask uncomfortable questions, the use of withdrawal means the end of  one's social life. Furthermore, even  television  or literature may contain images or  scenes that elicit painful emotions or stressful thoughts, and so many normal activities  come to be avoided. Withdrawal is one the most severe defense mechanisms because  it can lead to feelings of  alienation  and loneliness, which create more anxiety and pain.  Combined with  fantasy , withdrawal can paralyze one's life. Maladaptive Use Defense mechanisms are helpful and healthy if used in a proper manner. However, if  misused or overused, the same defense mechanisms may also be unhealthy. Maladaptive use of defense mechanisms can occur in a variety of cases, for example  when they become automatic and prevent individuals from realizing their true feelings  and thoughts. Frequent or continuous use of defense mechanisms disrupts reality- testing. Denial and paranoid projection are considered to be psychotic in nature, as their
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repeated use can cause people to lose touch with the real world and their surroundings, and consequently isolate themselves from reality and dwell in a world created of their  own design.
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