See Figure 76 in the Gilroy text Joints of the thoracic wall Notes

See figure 76 in the gilroy text joints of the

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during inspiration and expiration. See Figure 7.6 in the Gilroy text. Joints of the thoracic wall Notes Costovertebral joint Synovial joints at the articulation between the head of the rib and the superior and inferior costal facets of the thoracic vertebrae Costotransverse joint Synovial joints at the articulation between the costal tubercle of the rib and the transverse facet on the transverse process of the thoracic vertebrae Sternocostal joints Joint formed from the medial end of the costal cartilage the sternum. The first 1 st articulation is a synchondrosis joint and all others are synovial. Costochondral joints Synchondrosis joint formed between the end of the rib and the lateral side of the costal cartilage. These structures can be observed in Figures 7.6-7.8 LABEL the sternocostal joints and the costochondral joints BORDERS OF THE THORACIC CAVITY AND THE MEDIASTINUM Mediastinum The mediastinum is the cavity between the pleural cavities that contains all the thoracic viscera except the lungs. The borders of the mediastinum are as follows: superiorly is the thoracic inlet ; inferiorly is the diaphragm; anteriorly is the sternum and costal cartilages; posteriorly is the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. The mediastinum is divided into the superior and inferior mediastinum . The inferior mediastinum is subdivided into the anterior, middle and posterior sections. Today we will examine the superior and posterior sections. Some structures will pass through more than one compartment. Thoracic cavity Notes Superior thoracic aperture Also called the thoracic inlet Inferior thoracic aperture Also called the thoracic outlet
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Foster P a g e | 5 MUSCLES OF THE THORACIC WALL These muscles are responsible for ventilation. Structures Notes External intercostal muscles These are the most superficial layer made of 11 pairs of muscle bundles whose fibers run downward and forward around the thoracic wall. ACTION: Raise ribs for inspiration. INNERVATION: Intercostal nerves. Best palpated on the lateral thoracic wall and deeply inspire. You should feel the elevation of the ribs Internal intercostal muscles These have 11 pairs and run downward and posteriorly from the superior inner surface of ribs 2-12 to the inferior border of the next superior rib (1-11). ACTION: Lowers ribs in forced expiration. INNERVATION: Intercostal nerves. Best palpated on the anterior surface of the thoracic between the costal cartilage and forcefully exhale. These structures can be observed in Figures 7.9-7.11 LABEL the internal intercostals and the external intercostals
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Foster P a g e | 6 BLOOD VESSELS OF THE THORACIC CAVITY Arterial Structures Notes Aorta Ascending aorta Aortic arch Thoracic aorta Intercostal arteries These arteries are found with the intercostal veins and intercostal nerves on the inferior side of the rib. Brachiocephalic trunk Right subclavian artery Left subclavian artery Internal thoracic artery The internal thoracic artery can be used in coronary bypass surgery.
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  • Spring '19
  • Sternum, Subclavian artery, Intercostal muscle, Brachiocephalic artery, intercostal nerves

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