Differential association a theory of deviance that

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Differential association A theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes  favorable to criminal acts Differential justice Differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups Formal social control Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges,  school administrators, and employers Index crimes The 8 types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports:  murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Informal social control Social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as,  laughter, smiles, and ridicule Labeling theory An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as  deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not. Law Governmental social control Obedience Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure Organized crime The work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in  criminal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal  drugs Professional criminal A person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques,  and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals Sanction
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A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm Social constructionist perspective An approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the  deviant identity Social control The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society Social disorganization theory The theory that crime and deviance are caused by the absence or breakdown of  communal relationships and social institutions Societal-reaction approach Another name for labeling theory Stigma A label used to devalue members of certain social groups Transnational crime Crime that occurs across multiple national borders Victimization survey A questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether  people have been victims of crime Victimless crime A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely  desired, but illegal goods and services White collar crime Illegal acts committed by affluent, “respectable” individuals in the course of business  activities
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  • Spring '08
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