The process began first with broaching the topic and

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the process began first with “broaching the topic” and ended with a “conclusion” this included a series of antithetical statements – “the eight legs”to master these classical & rhetorical traditions required enormousknowledge this was knowledge of more than 10,000 Chinese charactersthis was a requirement to be allowed to write the exams in the firstplace.=at the 8th lunar month of every 3rd year, all candidates would gatherthis was at various provincial capitalson the 9th, 12th and 15th days of that month they go to examination cellsthe successful candidates – “raised men” – juren - would be allowedto start the next stagethis was the Metropolitan examinations held in the capital, the 2nd month of the next year,then the student would undergo the rigors of three-day tests.a successful candidate would be called the “presented scholar” – jinshithis would give him the privilege of meeting the emperor or his repand be given a rank.of the 90 times of the Ming dynasty a sum total of 24, 874 students achieved that statusA Constricted Curriculum:the Ming scholar had available to him more readily than ever before a wide range of texts, - these were scholarly ones either as amanuscript copy, or increasingly, a wood block imprint,this was acquired from one of many librariesthese were from private, official, or monasteries - or from the commercial book merchants.- soon enough the actual curriculum became more and more narrowly definedit began focusing on the commentaries to the Confucian canonthese were developed by the Song dynasty’s neo-Confucian Zhu Xi (1130-1200)i was believed that this was the key to the wisdom of the sages of
oldthis wisdom would move society toward universal peace and order - so they thought.Office and its Dangers:eligibility for office was everything for the Ming scholaras long as one maintained one’s registration, one was exempt from a) tax (money or labour)b) a variety of sumptuary lawsc) they were also immune from prosecution for various crimesd) they would immediately become a member of a national elite the actual salaries were generally low during the Ming,but office holding could prove to be a profitable venture.it was the sole acceptable method of social mobility yet the holding of office had its drawbacksfor example, when the supply exceeded the demand the bureaucracy at most increased to 24,000 men.there was intense factionalism at the imperial court during the Ming especially, so, few men could enjoy a steady career free of anxiety of dismissaland disgrace.-the tasks to be done were quite extraordinary in natureevery job had to be scrutinized, reviewed, and evaluatedfor example, the district magistrate was responsible for the well-being of some 90,000 peoplethis population was spread over an area of1300 sq. mileshis duties consisted of the following: a) tax collection,

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