Conclusion digo is a multifactorial adverse effect of

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CONCLUSION DIGO is a multifactorial adverse effect of taking certain systemic medications. Although exact pathogenic mechanisms are not yet completely understood, the drug variables, dental‑plaque induced inflammatory changes, and genetic variables are frequently listed as important risk factors for DIGO. Careful selection of drug and its dose for particular medical conditions by medical practitioners might be helpful in preventing drug‑related adverse effects. In cases, where using drugs that induce gingival overgrowth is unavoidable, Figure 2: Treatment recommendation flowchart for cyclosporine‑induced drug‑induced gingival overgrowth [Downloaded free from on Friday, September 15, 2017, IP: 36.79.172.174]
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Samudrala, et al .: DIGO: A review of case reports Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology - Volume XX, Issue XX, Month 2017 5 dental referral, thorough plaque control, reinforcement of oral hygiene maintenance instructions to the patient might be helpful in preventing as well as controlling the severity of the lesion. An in‑depth knowledge of pharmacokinetics of the drugs, their adverse effects, pathogenic mechanisms involved in DIGO and their varied clinical presentations helps the dental practitioner in therapeutic management of DIGO. In addition, coordination between medical and dental practitioners is essential for successful management of DIGO. Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. REFERENCES 1. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol 1999;4:1‑6. 2. American Academy of Periodontology. Glossary of Periodontal Terms. 4 th ed. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Periodontology; 2001. 3. Seymour RA. Effects of medications on the periodontal tissues in health and disease. Periodontol 2000 2006;40:120‑9. 4. Behari M. Gingival hyperplasia due to sodium valproate. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:279‑80. 5. Valsecchi R, Cainelli T. Gingival hyperplasia induced by erythromycin. Acta Derm Venereol 1992;72:157. 6. Hallmon WW, Rossmann JA. The role of drugs in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth. A collective review of current concepts. Periodontol 2000 1999;21:176‑96. 7. Mariotti A. Dental plaque‑induced gingival diseases. Ann Periodontol 1999;4:7‑19. 8. D’Errico B, Albanese A. Drug‑induced gingival hyperplasia, treatment with diode laser. Ann Stomatol (Roma) 2013;4 Suppl 2:14. 9. Pasupuleti MK, Musalaiah SV, Nagasree M, Kumar PA. Combination of inflammatory and amlodipine induced gingival overgrowth in a patient with cardiovascular disease. Avicenna J Med 2013;3:68‑72. 10. Joshi S, Bansal S. A rare case report of amlodipine‑induced gingival enlargement and review of its pathogenesis. Case Rep Dent 2013;2013:138248. 11. Muralikrishna T, Kalakonda B, Gunupati S, Koppolu P. Laser‑Assisted Periodontal Management of Drug‑Induced Gingival Overgrowth under General Anesthesia: A Viable Option.
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