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Spain and Britain together, radiating their influence out among resentful Indian tribes prevented American from exercisingeffective control over about half of its territory5.Even France, America’s ally, cooled off now that it had humbled Britain; the French demanded the repayment of money loaned during the war & restricted trade to W.I. ports6.Pirates of the North African states were ravaging America’s Mediterranean commerce and enslaving Yankee sailors; the British hadpurchased protection for their own subjects but the colonists in the Americans no longer enjoyed this shield from the pirates
10.The Horrid Specter of Anarchy1.Economic storm clouds continued to loom in the mid-1780s; the requisition system of raising money was breaking down; some states refused to pay, while complaining bitterly about the tyranny of “King Congress” and the nation’s credit was evaporating abroad2.Individual states were getting out of hand; quarrels over boundaries generated numerous minor pitched battles; some states were levying duties on goods from their neighbors; and a number of states were again starting to grind out depreciated paper currency3.An alarming uprising, known as Shay’s Rebellion, flared up in western Massachusetts in 1786; impoverished backcountry farmers were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies; led by Captain Daniel Shays these desperate debtors demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers1.Massachusetts authorities responded with drastic action; supported partly by contributions from wealthy citizens, they raised a small army; several skirmishes occurred and the movement collapsed after three were killed and one was wounded2.Daniel Shays, who believed that he was fighting anew against tyranny, was condemned to death but was later pardoned by authorities3.Shay’s followers were crushed and the outbursts of these and other distressed debtors struck fear in the hearts of the propertied class, who began the suspect that the Revolution had created a “mobocracy” which threatened their best interests4.Unbridled republicanism, it seemed to many of the elite, had fed an insatiable appetite for liberty that was fast becoming license; civic virtue was no longer sufficient to rein in self-interest and greed; ifrepublicanism was too shaky a ground upon to construct a new nation,a stronger central government would provide the needed foundation1.Friends and critics of the Confederation agreed that it need some strengthening; the chief differences arose over how this