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Returned to Vienna in 1795: produced oratorios, Masses, string quartets, and taught BeethovenOther Classical Chamber Music and Solo Keyboard Music• Joseph HaydnString Quartet in Eb Major, op. 76, no. 6.Piano Trio in G Major, Hob. XV: 25. Wolfgang Amadeus MozartString Quartet in C Major, K. 456. String Quartet in D Major, K. 575.Master Musicians of the Ikuta-ryuCherry BlossomCherry BlossomKotoA Japanese plucked zitherFocused, penetrating sound (few harmonics/overtone partials)Originally played for nobles; later a popular instrumentDifferent techniques of playing koto exist; schools of playing known as ryuAn oral tradition: kanji notation is inexactThe KotoThis Japanese zither has moveable bridges to tune each of its 13 strings; it is plucked with plectra worn on the player's right hand.
Cherry BlossomPlaying the koto13 bridges across the board, adjusted during tuning sectionPlayer wears 3 ivory plectrato pluck stringsLeft hand presses or pulls strings to left of bridge to change the pitch up or downSometimes both hands pluck strings as in Cherry BlossomCherry BlossomSakura = "Cherry Blossom"Extramusical associations—like program musicThe cherry blossom is beautiful but short livedRepresents the cycle of lifeTheme and Variations FormNot related to Haydn's theme and variationsFolk melody is used as the themeCherry BlossomForm:Prelude: performer tunes instrumentTheme = three phrases in "in" mode (sorrowful sounding, pentatonicscale)—ABC6 variations on the three phrases, using various plucking and strumming techniquesImprovisatory passage before the final variationYuki Yamada Plays the Japanese KotoCherry BlossomGeisha: "Art Persons"Paid performers with high levels of skill in musical performance, dancing, and tea ceremonyPlay traditional instruments, especially koto and shamisen (plucked lute like a banjo)Education takes many years; a form of indentured servitudeSingle femalesRetire if they marryJoseph HaydnSymphony no.102in B-flat MajorSymphony no.102 in B-flat Major
One of Haydn's 12 London symphoniesIn the context of the aftermath of the revolution:Ideals of liberty, equality, personal freedom, fraternitySome heard this symphony as mirroring those idealsBringing together the public Diverse instruments combing to create an all-encompassing whole: “sounding together”The SymphonySymphony: Musical Genre begun in the Classical Era—usually 3 or 4 movements: “voices together”Still written today in a variety of configurations (UKSO’s recent premiere of Pasatieri’s first symphony)Typical 4-movement configuration1st movement: fast tempo; sonata form2nd movement: slow tempo, commonly sonata, theme and variation, or ABA form (contrasting key)3rd movement: minuet and trio—dance form in triple meter4th movement: fast and lighter than 1st movement; sonata or rondo formThe SymphonyThe Classical OrchestraAlso called "chamber orchestra"Strings: 8-10 first violins, 6-8 second violins, 4-6 violas, 3-4 cellos, 2 double bassesWinds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets, 2 French hornsPercussion: timpani (kettle drums)A wide variety of timbres available by using different combinations of these instrumentsSymphony no.1023rd Movement