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factors led to an accident. The air crash was caused by the pilot’s failure to monitor the flight instruments properly. Pilot fatigue is also one of the major human factors that compromise aviation safety. Pilotfatigue leads to reduced physical or mental performance, which increases the chances of the pilotmaking errors. The unpredictable long hours of pilots is one of the major causes of fatigue. The long working hours make it difficult for pilots to get enough sleep. Regulators strive to reduce pilot fatigue by limiting the number of hours that pilots should work. However, their efforts are usually unsuccessful. Piloting while intoxicated is also one of the human factors that may lead to accidents. Forinstance, in 1990, three crew members of Northwest Airlines were convicted for flying while intoxicated. Aero Flight 311, which crashed in Koivulahti, Finland in 1961, is one of the instances where flying while intoxicated had dire consequences. The crash led to the death of all 25 people on board. However, it is vital to note that human factors that lead to accidents are not merely limited to errors by pilots. For instance, the failure aircraft crew to close the door properly led to the crash of the Turkish Airlines Flight 981 in 1974. The design of the door is played a major rolein the failure to close the latch of the cargo door. Improper repairs of an aircraft as highlighted byJapan Airlines Flight 123 may also lead to accidents. Summary of Major Findings and Conclusion There has been a significant improvement in aviation safety due to technological improvements, legislation, and training. Aviation is currently the safest means of transport. However, more needs to be done to improve aviation safety. Various players in the aviation industry have traditionally used a reactive, incident-bases approach to deal with aviation safety.
SAFETY IN AVIATION9Accidents prompt them to implement measures that improve security. The industry is gradually adopting a proactive approach. The availability of a vast amount of data would help in the implementation of a proactive approach as it would determine the safety hazards, which would be tackled effectively. Various players in the industry coordinate their efforts to improve safety. The governmentensures that it formulates that acts in the best interest of the aviation sector. However, other players should not simply be forced by regulatory changes to improve their safety standards. Currently, airlines have policies and standards that strive to improve safety. The policies have greatly helped in reducing the number of safety incidences in the recent past. The policies and standards strive to reduce the probability of occurrence of accidents due to human factors as suchaccidents are avoidable (Oster, Strong & Zorn, 2013).